Not specified/not applicable

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe

Type of evidence: 

Source: 

European Commission

Year: 

2011

Construction accounts for 50% of all extracted material use in the EU. The European Commission calls for a further strengthening of resource efficiency in buildings and construction by considering the lifetime costs of a building rather than just the initial costs and also better infrastructure planning. They have set the 2020 milestone to have the majority of rennovation and constuction standards to be of high efficiency standards.

The New Plastics Economy: Catalysing action

Type of evidence: 

Source: 

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

Year: 

2017

"Launched at the World Economic Forum's Annual Meeting in Davos in January 2017, this new research presents three strategies to increase reuse and recycling of plastic packaging to 70%, from today's recycling rate of just 14%. The report provides a clear action plan, endorsed by over 40 industry leaders, for the global plastics industry to design better packaging, increase recycling rates, and introduce new models for making better use of packaging." (https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation....

Circular economy: a commentary from the perspectives of the natural and social sciences

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

European Academies Science Advisory Council

Source: 

EASAC

Year: 

2015

This commentary by the EASAC primarily examines the proposed benefits and potential enabling policies of the circular economy. A broad range of sources is used to recognize gaps and inadequacies in proposed benefits and policies in order to foster a substantial discussion among stakeholders as to how to proceed in the transition process. The study also examines barriers and indicators and comments on their nature and efficacy respectively. Furthermore, the commentary provides advice regarding avoidance of barriers and the use of proper indicators.

The history and current applications of the circular economy concept

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

K. Winans, A. Kendall, H. Deng

Source: 

University of California

Year: 

2017

"The challenges of balancing industrial development, environmental and human health, and economic growth in China and elsewhere in the world are drivers for recent resource use and low-carbon development strategies that include the application of the circular economy (CE) concept. A central theme of the CE concept is the valuation of materials within a closed-looped system with the aim to allow for natural resource use while reducing pollution or avoiding resource constraints and sustaining economic growth. The objectives of this study are (1) to review the history of the CE concept to...

Sustainable homeservices? Toward household services that enhance ecological, social and economic sustainability

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Minna Halme, Christine Jasch, Michael Scharp

Source: 

Helsinki School of Economics, IOW, Institute for Environmental Management and Economics, IZT, Institute for Future Studies and Technology Assessment

Year: 

2004

If the material artefact remains in the ownership of the producer then there is a financial incentive to direct innovatory activities to produce more durable goods and the producer has responsibility for disposal. A smaller stock of products is needed to satisfy demand and if customers use these sequentially intensity of use increases as does the probability of a higher service yield before the product becomes outdated due to outdated technological characteristics, e.g. fashion. *In result orientated services, producers use their competencies to ensure the correct use of material artefacts...

Design for change and circularity - accommodating circular material & product flows in construction

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

R.J. Geldermans

Year: 

2016

"Circular building concepts, as proposed within e.g. Circular Economy and Cradle-to-Cradle frameworks, imply radical changes for the construction sector. Cradle-to-Cradle® in particular has put forward the idea of buildings as material banks, radically altering the way material flows need to be managed. The notion of material banks (temporary storage of materials that comprise the building assemblies) sheds new light on the value of building materials and products, and how to maintain and restore this. The basics are straightforward: high quality, pure material use and anticipated material...

Measuring circular economy strategies through index methods: A critical analysis

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Valerio Elia, Maria Grazia Gnoni, Fabiana Tornese

Source: 

Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento

Year: 

2015

"In the last years, the circular economy (CE) paradigm is being widely explored by researchers and institutions as a possible path to increase the sustainability of our economic system. Reuse, repair and recycling are becoming crucial activities in many sectors. At the same time, companies are showing an increasing interest for this new economic model. However, the state of the art shows that a deep research on CE assessment and indicators is still lacking, in particular on the micro level. This work tries to fill this gap, first analyzing the current literature on CE assessment, then...

Towards Sustainable Plastic Recycling in India - Experiences from the field

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Arthur Haarman

Year: 

2015

"This report was prepared for the project "Managing hazardous additives in plastic reycycling in India". This project is part of the Sustainable Recycling Industries programme (SRI), funded by the Swiss State Secretariat of Economic Affairs (SECO) and jointly implemented by the Institute for Materials Science & Technology (Empa), the World Resources Forum (WRF) and ecoinvent." (p. 1)

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