Type of evidence: 

"WaterGAP is an integrated-environmental model, combining socio-economic drivers and climate change in a single, integrated framework. It was developed to model water availability, use and quality on a global level."


Type of evidence: 

"A model that is specifically developed for the application at the European scale is VSD+. This system allows to calculate impacts of (i) air quality parameters, including exposure to NH3 and NOx and deposition of N and acidity and (ii) climatic parameters related to water availability and temperature on ecosystem services […]"


Type of evidence: 

"TechnoGIN calculates the required inputs (labour demand, fertiliser demand, biocide demand, water demand and the related costs) for given target yields in a crop rotation. The generated input-output and cost-benefit relationships for the main crop activities in a region are next used in an optimization model (e.g. (FSSIM) at the farm or regional level."


Type of evidence: 

"The SUSMETRO Impact Assessment tool provides information on the expected effects of spatial planning with regard to the self-supportive capacities of the region (ecological footprint) and the share of recreational and nature conservation facilities (land uses functions), offering cost-benefit calculations regarding the expected economic revenues."


Type of evidence: 

"REAP provides scenario and modelling and policy assessment on the issue of Sustainable Consumption and Production. Designed by the Stockholm Environment Institute and Centre for Urban and Regional Ecology, REAP uses some of the most sophisticated modelling approaches to understand the material flows, carbon dioxide emissions, greenhouse gas emissions and Ecological Footprint of the UK, regions and local authorities."


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