Library

The library contains a wealth of information on the circular economy for use by policy makers and analysts conducting impact assessments. For more information on impact assessments and the EU's Better Regulation Agenda, please click here.

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    Sustainable homeservices? Toward household services that enhance ecological, social and economic sustainability

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Minna Halme, Christine Jasch, Michael Scharp

    Source: 

    Helsinki School of Economics, IOW, Institute for Environmental Management and Economics, IZT, Institute for Future Studies and Technology Assessment

    Year: 

    2004

    If the material artefact remains in the ownership of the producer then there is a financial incentive to direct innovatory activities to produce more durable goods and the producer has responsibility for disposal. A smaller stock of products is needed to satisfy demand and if customers use these sequentially intensity of use increases as does the probability of a higher service yield before the product becomes outdated due to outdated technological characteristics, e.g. fashion. *In result orientated services, producers use their competencies to ensure the correct use of material artefacts...

    NOW!

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    NOW!

    Source: 

    NOW!

    Year: 

    2017

    NOW! Lighting is a lighting as a service provider whose business model relies on energy cost reductions in order to acquire consumer buy in.

    Product services for a resource efficient and circular economy--a review

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Arnold Tucker

    Source: 

    Natherlands Organisation for Applied Sceintific Research TNO; Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Institute of Environemental Sciences, Leiden University

    Year: 

    2013

    "Since the 1990s, Product Service Systems (PSS) have been heralded as one of the most effective instruments for moving society towards a resource-efficient, circular economy and creating a much-needed ‘resource revolution’. This paper reviews the literature on PSS in the last decade and compares the findings with those from an earlier review in this journal in 2006. Close to 300 relevant papers were identified, over 140 of which have been referenced in this review. Research in the field of PSS has become more prolific, with the output of refereed papers quadrupling since 2000, while on...

    Institutionalization of sustainable consumption patterns based on shared use

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Oksana Mont

    Source: 

    The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University

    Year: 

    2004

    Mont begins the article by outlining history of consumption, its consequences, and the sociological and anthropological undertones in consumption patterns. She then pivots the conversation to Product Service Sytems, defining it and explaining ist background. In brief, she charactizes PSS well as "the idea that people do not necessarily want a material product, rather utility." Importantly she acknowledges that there is not an inherrent link to environmental sustainability and PSS, stating instances where the producers and services providers are detached can lead to limited improvements of...

    Product-service systems: a literature review on integrated products and services

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Fernanda Hänsch Beuren, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes Ferreira, Paulo A. Cauchick Miguel

    Source: 

    Production and System Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina

    Year: 

    2013

    "Academic and business interests in the product-service system have risen significantly in recent years. The product-service system represents a competitive opportunity for many companies as they seek to reduce consumption by altering how their products are used by providing services. To further establish this field, the objective of this paper is to present a literature review on the product-service system, including 149 papers published from 2006 to 2010. The review discusses specific features of the product-service system as well as the benefits and drawbacks that the literature has...

    Philips provides Light as a Service to Schiphol Airport

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Philips Electronics

    Source: 

    Philips Electronics

    Year: 

    2015

    A press release by Philips announcing a partnership with Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam to provide light as a service. The release claims that the fixtures now being used are more sustainable and energy efficient. The statement explicitly states the partnership as a step towards a more circular economy

    The role of public policy in advancement of product service systems

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    O. Mont, T. Lindhqvist

    Source: 

    The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University

    Year: 

    2003

    PSS companies face a variety of barriers to entry, government policy action can be taken to mitigate these barriers. However, actions taken must ensure that the PSS companies that are supported are environmentally sustainable. To do this, environmental policies should be implemented by governments that indirectly benefit sustainable PSS companies that further sustainable practices. These policies include pricing mechanisms, information dissemination, reductions of transaction costs, support of environmental research efforts, and promotion of case studies. The Swedish EPA successfully...

    Spreading the rooftop revolution: What policies enable solar-as-a-service

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Harold Overholm

    Source: 

    University of Cambridge Institute for Manfacturing

    Year: 

    2015

    Overholm explains the concept of third party ownership solar firms, where customers pay for solar as a service. Firms maintain ownership of panels, maintain them, install them, and navigate the legal and logistical obstacles of individual renewable energy, while customers pay a contractual fee. Barriers to entry as well as supportive and constricting policies are explained.

    Rethinking Lighting as a Service

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Dan Vinton

    Source: 

    LED Inside; GE

    Year: 

    2015

    Dan Vinton, the CFO of Europe, Middle East, and Africa GE Lighting argues that LEDs and efficient, long-lasting lighting has led the lighting industry to look towards new options of revenue, one of which is selling light as a service. Because LEDs as a product cannot be sold as often as typical bulbs, lighting companies can begin to use Special Purchase Vehicles, where they can couple services with lighting, such as wifi, and smart technology. It also allows the customer tp enjoy energy savings and and increased control without having the burden of installing and maintaining the system....

    Breakthrough without subsidies? PV business model experiments in the Netherlands

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    J.C.C.M. Huijben; G.P.J. Verbong

    Source: 

    Eindhoven university of technology, School of Innovation Sciences

    Year: 

    2013

    European markets are realtively imbalanced in regard to solar consumption, with Germany and Italy dominating the industry. Moreover, solar as a service or third party owned solar has yet to be as prominent in Europe as in the United States. In the United States changes in legislation allowed for the proliferation of the industry. Advantages of TPO solar companies is that initial investment costs are steeply reduced and the technological challenges of installation become a non-issue when left to a company. These act as major incentives and advantages to buy in. In the Netherlands some small...

    Energy, environmental and mobility impacts of car-sharing systems. Empirical results from Lisbon, Portugal

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Patrícia Baptista, Sandra Melo, Catarina Rolim

    "The dominance of road transport, both on passenger and freight movements, has reached alarming levels for society due to their negative environmental impacts as well as societal and economic costs. To reverse this trend, many approaches have been applied, but without significant effects on mobility patterns and on the sustainability of the transport system. Fairly promising results have recently been reported in Europe with car-sharing. This research confirms, as hypothesized by prior research, that car sharing contributes to a more efficient and rational mobility (with lower number of...

    Practice and public-private partnerships in sustainable transport governance: The case of care sharing in Sydney, Australia

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Robyn Dowling, Jennifer Kent

    Year: 

    2015

    "Over the past two decades car sharing has become a mainstream transportation mode for over a million users worldwide with organisations now operating in more than 1100 cities across 26 countries and on five continents. Car sharing has developed alongside significant intellectual currents exploring the attributes and effectiveness of the diverse strands of transport policy. These debates include the efficacy of behaviour change programmes to shift transport practice, the imprints of neoliberalism on transport policy, and the withdrawal of the state as active agent in shaping policy...

    Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    European Commission

    Year: 

    2011

    Construction accounts for 50% of all extracted material use in the EU. The European Commission calls for a further strengthening of resource efficiency in buildings and construction by considering the lifetime costs of a building rather than just the initial costs and also better infrastructure planning. They have set the 2020 milestone to have the majority of rennovation and constuction standards to be of high efficiency standards.

    Shaping the Future of Construction

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    World Economic Forum and The Boston Consulting Group

    Source: 

    World Economic Forum, The Boston Consulting Group

    Year: 

    2016

    "This report is the first publication of a multi-year project for guiding and supporting the Engineering & Construction (E&C) industry during its current transformation. The report describes the industry’s present state, assesses relevant global trends and their impact on the industry, and devises an industry-transformation framework with key areas for development and action. It also features many best practices and case studies of innovative approaches or solutions, and offers a view – at different levels, such as at the company-, industry- and sector-level – of how the future of...

    Circulair bouwen

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Sanderine van Odijk and Floor van Bovene

    Source: 

    Circle Economy, ABN AMRO

    Year: 

    2014

    This report provides an overview of the Dutch construction and demolition sector in relation to the circular economy. To this end it addresses key isssues that arise due to resource-inefficiency and explores what a circular construction and demolition sector could look like. Furthermore, recommendations for the future are presented.

    HISER

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    HISER

    Source: 

    HISER

    Year: 

    2015

    Aims to increase the recovery rate of raw materials from buildings by taking into account circular economy approaches.

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