Library

The library contains a wealth of information on the circular economy for use by policy makers and analysts conducting impact assessments. For more information on impact assessments and the EU's Better Regulation Agenda, please click here.

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    Towards the Circular Economy Vol. 1: an economic and business rationale for an accelerated transition

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2012

    "Using product case studies and economic-wide analysis, this report details the potential for significant benefits across the EU. It argues that a subset of the EU manufacturing sector could realise net materials cost savings worth up to $ 630 billion p.a. towards 2025 - stimulating economic activity in areas of product development, remanufacturing and refurbishment." (https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/...

    Towards the Circular Economy Vol. 2: opportunities for the consumer goods sector

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2013

    "The report focuses on fast-moving consumer goods, which currently accounts for about 60 per cent of total consumer spending, 35 per cent of material inputs into the economy, and 75 per cent of municipal waste. Importantly, the consumer goods sector absorbs more than 90 per cent of our agricultural output - possibly our most embattled resource in the future." (https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/towards-the-circul...)

    Towards the Circular Economy Vol. 3: Accelerating the scale-up across global supply chains

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    World Economic Forum, Ellen MacArthur Foundation, McKinsey & Company

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2014

    "Towards the Circular Economy vol.3: accelerating the scale-up across global supply chains, finds that over US$1 trillion a year could be generated by 2025 for the global economy and 100,000 new jobs created for the next five years if companies focused on encouraging the build-up of circular supply chains to increase the rate of recycling, reuse, and remanufacture. This would maximize the value of materials when products approach the end of their use." (...

    Employment and the circular economy job creation through resource efficiency in London

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Peter Mitchell

    Year: 

    2015

    "Several city leagues confirm that London is the best big city to live in, to work in, and to visit – renowned for its culture, diversity, innovation and leading position in sectors such as finance and professional services. But it also has a vibrant green economy, with exceptional skills in renewable energy, carbon finance and sustainable building technologies. Indeed, a 2013 report concluded that London’s Low Carbon Environmental Goods and Services1 sector now contributes over £25.4bn to the economy, with strong growth of over 5% year on year. Three possible plausible futures to 2030 for...

    The Circular Economy 100

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    "The Circular Economy 100 is a pre-competitive innovation programme established to enable organisations to develop new opportunities and realise their circular economy ambitions faster. It brings together corporates, governments and cities, academic institutions, emerging innovators and affiliates in a unique multi-stakeholder platform. Specially developed programme elements help memebers learn, build capacity, network, and collaborate with key organisations around the circular economy." (https://...

    Waste to Wealth: The Circular Economy Advantage

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Jakob Rutqvist, Peter Lacy

    Year: 

    2015

    "Waste to wealth proves that 'green' and 'growth' need not to be binary alternatives. The book examines five new business models that provide circular growth from deploying sustainable resources to the sharing economy before setting out what business leaders need to do to implement the models succesfully." (https://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781137530684)

    The Circular Economy: A review of definitions, processes and impacts

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Vasileios Rizos, Katja Tuokko, Arno Behrens

    Source: 

    CEPS

    Year: 

    2017

    Transforming the linear economy, which has remained the dominant model since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, into a circular one is by no means an easy task. Such a radical change entails a major transformation of our current production and consumption patterns, which in turn will have a significant impact on the economy, the environment and society. Understanding these impacts is crucial for researchers as well as for policy-makers engaged in designing future policies in the field. This requires developing an in-depth knowledge of the concept of the circular economy, its processes...

    PolyCE

    Type of evidence: 

    Year: 

    2017

    "Various activities address the WEEE value chain in order to reduce waste generation and enhance the sustainable resource management through use of recycled materials instead of their virgin counterparts. While the system for metals recycling is already well established, the rising volumes of waste plastics point to stalemates in the current plastics economy, which hamper its shift to a more circular model. Although there are individual efforts to improve the collection and recycling of WEEE plastics, the plastics value chain is still too fragmented and WEEE recycled plastics seem...

    R2Pi

    Type of evidence: 

    Year: 

    2016

    "R2π examines ways to shift from the broad concept of a Circular Economy (CE) to one of Circular Economy Business Models (CEBM) while searching for both market failures and policy failure that hinder the broad implementation, use, and acceptance of CEBMs. The uniqueness of the R2π project is in having a strong business orientation that goes beyond environmental goals and in examining the role of (innovative) business tools and policy packages on the diffusion of CEBMs. The aim of the R2π project is to highlight sustainable business models for circular economy and to propose Policy Packages...

    FiberEUse

    Type of evidence: 

    Year: 

    2017

    "Glass and carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (GFRP and CFRP) are increasingly used as structural materials in many manufacturing sectors like transport, constructions and energy due to their better lightweight and corrosion resistance compared to metals. Composite recycling is a challenging task. Although mechanical grinding and pyrolysis reached a quite high TRL, landfilling of EoL composites is still widespread since no significant added value in the re-use and remanufacturing of composites is demonstrated. The FiberEUse project aims at integrating in a holistic approach...

    ECOBULK

    Type of evidence: 

    Year: 

    2017

    "ECOBULK through a large scale demonstration effort will contribute to “closing the loop” of composite products in the automotive, furniture and building sectors by promoting greater re-use, upgrade, refurbishment and recycle of products, parts, and materials. It will bring opportunities for both the environment and the economy by offering business opportunities along the entire new defined supply and value chains. ECOBULK approach will be based on identifying and promoting commonalities in processes, technologies, products and services ensuring replicability and transferability to other...

    PlastiCircle

    Type of evidence: 

    Year: 

    2017

    "The European plastic market is not currently aligned with the circular economy. More than 25.8 million tonnes of plastic waste are produced per year in the EU28 being recycled only 29.7%. This represents a clear loose in the plastic market loop (losses of €10.56bn). Moreover, this goes against the EU legislation on waste (high environmental impact; 23.8 Mt of CO2). Low recycling rates of plastic are mainly due to the situation of packaging waste (i.e. main plastic waste fraction), since it is mainly domestic residue and consequently the quality of the material collected depends on the...

    CIRC-PACK

    Type of evidence: 

    Year: 

    2017

    "CIRC-PACK project aims at more sustainable, efficient, competitive, less fossil fuel dependence, integrated and interconnected plastic packaging value chain. To this end, three case studies will work in developing, testing and validating better system-wide economic and environmental outcomes by i) decoupling the chain from fossil feedstocks, (ii) reducing the negative environmental impact of plastic packaging; and (iii) creating an effective after-use plastics economy. All in all, the work will be supported by non-technological analysis and advanced methodological analysis (including...

    PAPERCHAIN

    Type of evidence: 

    Year: 

    2017

    "Europe is the second world producer of pulp and paper, manufacturing 130 million tonnes in 2014 and representing 23% of world production. The EU pulp and paper manufacturing and converting industries generate an annual turnover of €180 billion, representing 1,26% of the European GDP. In particular, the Pulp and Paper industry (PPI) has a turnover of €75 billion, comprises 920 plants and provides 180,000 jobs in Europe directly, and 1.5 million in the value chain. This sector is resource intensive and produces 11 million tonnes of waste yearly . It has been found that 25-40% of municipal...

    Conceptualizing the circular economy: An analysis of 114 definitions

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Julian Kirchherr, Denise Reike, Marko Hekkert

    Source: 

    Utrecht University

    Year: 

    2017

    "The circular economy concept has gained momentum both among scholars and practitioners. However, critics claim that it means many different things to different people. This paper provides further evidence for these critics. The aim of this paper is to create transparency regarding the current understandings of the circular economy concept. For this purpose, we have gathered 114 circular economy definitions which were coded on 17 dimensions. Our findings indicate that the circular economy is most frequently depicted as a combination of reduce, reuse and recycle activities, whereas it is...

    FUDIPO

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Erik Dahlquist

    Source: 

    European Commission

    Year: 

    2017

    "FUDIPO is a project funded by the European Commission under the H2020 programme, SPIRE-02-2016 topic: "Plant-wide monitoring and control of data-intensive processes". To face this topic, FUDIPO will develop and test an integrated set of methods combining mathematical modelling and simulation with experiments in pilot and full-scale facilities. This will take place within a strong consortium of industries (also SMEs), the main users of the developed toolbox, suppliers (also SMEs) that will focus primarily on developing the tools and academic partners deepening the underlying theory (...

    The Transfer and Application of Product System Services: from academia to UK manufacturing firms

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    M.B. Cook; T.A. Bhamra; M. Lemon

    Source: 

    Cranfield University; Loughborough University

    Year: 

    2006

    The article seeks to define the concept of Product Service Systems (PSS) and then explain its economic, environmental, and other real world impacts. The main purpose of the piece is to explain these concepts through describing the application of the PSS to a real world scenario in the manufacturing sector in the UK

    Changing consumer behavior through eco-efficient services: an empirical study of car sharing in the Netherlands

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Rens Meijkamp

    Source: 

    Delft University of Technology, Section for Environmental Product Development

    Year: 

    1998

    This article mainly focuses on car sharing as an example of changing consumer behavior in order to benefit the environment. A discussion of technology and 'eco-efficient services plays a significant role here.

    Drivers and barriers for shifting towards more service oriented businesses: Analysis of the PSS field and contributions from Sweden

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Oksana Mont

    Source: 

    The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University

    Year: 

    2002

    The article provides some theoretical definitions of PSS and describes barriers and drivers to engaging in PSS economies.

    The Service Economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    OECD

    Source: 

    OECD

    Year: 

    2000

    The report outlines the changes of the economies of OECD countries to become more service oriented. Because the article was published in 2000 it lacks the specificity to discuss PaS in depth, but is useful in general discussions of service oriented economies.

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