The library contains a wealth of information on the circular economy for use by policy makers and analysts conducting impact assessments. For more information on impact assessments and the EU's Better Regulation Agenda, please click here.
BirdLife International, European Environmental Bureau (EEB), Transport & Environment (T&E)
"With the launch of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) in 2009, Europe’s demand for biofuels has skyrocketed. To meet this new demand, the global production of biofuels has also increased significantly. In fact, did you know that every car in Europe uses a blend of biofuels? That’s how common this product has become. Biofuels use vegetable oils, cereals, sugars and waste fats – mainly extracted from rapeseed, soy, palm trees, corn and wheat – to create energy. Because biofuels are derived from plant products, any increase or decrease in their use has a direct impact on agriculture...
National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-products
"The National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB), an algal biofuels research consortium, was formed to specifically address the objectives set forth by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE), Office of Biomass Programs (now called the Bioenergy Technologies Office, BETO), under the funding opportunity announcement DE-FOA-0000123, “Development of Algal/Advanced Biofuels Consortia”. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided the funds for this effort. In this announcement DOE sought consortia that would “...
"This report is based on the proceedings of the Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Workshop held by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) on November 5, 2014, in Arlington, VA. The workshop gathered stakeholders from industry, academia, national laboratories, and government to discuss the issues and potential for research, development, and demonstration activities to pave the way for large-scale production of cost-competitive, renewable fuels from wet waste biomass resources. The ideas provided here represent a snapshot of the perspectives and ideas generated by the...
"This report draws together activities related to wet and gaseous waste feedstocks into a single document. It enables an amplified focus on feedstocks in the relevant technology and potential markets category. Also, this report helps to inform and support ongoing wet and gaseous resource recovery activities in the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and in the broader federal space. Historically, the office has identified wet and gaseous waste feedstocks as potentially advantageous, but has not pursued them with a sustained focus. This document seeks to position these waste streams...
Ethan Warner, Kristi Moriarty, John Lewis, Anelia Milbrandt, Amy Schwab
US Department of Energy
"This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO...
"This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Demonstration and Deployment (D&D) Strategy Workshop, held on March 12–13, 2014, at Argonne National Laboratory. The workshop gathered stakeholders from industry, academia, national laboratories, and government to discuss the issues and potential for demonstration and deployment activities to pave the way for large-scale production of cost-competitive, renewable fuels from biomass resources. The ideas provided here represent a snapshot of the perspectives and ideas generated...
"Hainan Airlines completed China's first commercial flight using biofuel. Waste cooking oil is used as the raw material to mix with normal jet fuel. The Boeing 737-800 flew around 100 pas-sengers from Shanghai to Bejiing. A handful of countries pos-sesses the ability to create its own biofuel. Waste oil is major health problem in China as it is collected from gutters and sold back to restaurants" (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/...
"MEthane activation via integrated MEmbrane REactors (MEMERE) responds to the EU Horizon 2020 call SPIRE-05-2015 and is a research and innovation project aiming at methane activation towards C2+ . The focus of the project is on the air separation through novel MIEC membranes integrated within a reactor operated at high temperature for OCM allowing integration of different process steps in a single multifunctional unit and achieving much higher yields compared with conventional reactor." (https://www.spire2030.eu/memere)
"CarbonNext is a Horizon2020 project funded by the European Commission to investigate the opportunities for alternative carbon feedstocks as we move away from using fossil fuels as the main source. We need to find new sources of carbon for industrial process if we are to create a sustainable chemical process industry in Europe that reduces its carbon dioxide emissions. CarbonNext's objective is to evaluate the potential of new carbon sources in Europe. It will pri-marily focus on new sources of carbon to be used as a feedstock and secondarily the impact this will have on on energy...
"Waste cooking oil to biodiesel conversion efficiency depends on the recycling mode that is being practiced. The recycling modes in China, the US and Japan can be placed in two categories: third party take-back (TPT) and the biodiesel enterprise take-back (BET). We review the operation mechanisms of theses modes, their advantages and disadvantages in three countries and compare them using recycling costs and profits of biodiesel enterprises, subsidies for manufacturers, recycling rates, degree of administrative control, technical support and incentive mechanisms provided for the...
"E3MG is a sectoral econometric model for 20 world regions that has been developed with the intention of analyzing long-term energy and environment interactions with the global economy and assessing short and long-term impacts. The model consists of an in-depth treatment of changes in the input-output structure of the economy over the forecast period and incorporates the effects of technological change, relative price movements and changes in the composition of each industry’s output."
"EU-Rotate_N is a dynamic, process-based simulation model for crop rotations including field vegetables, simulating water, carbon and nitrogen cycles in soil and crop and their combined impact on crop growth and yield."
"GEM-CCGT is a general equilibrium model designed for analysing the effects of multilateral agreements on climate change and trade. As a general equilibrium model, it implies that resources are allocated efficiently (all the markets of an economy are in equilibrium). The model is mainly used for: impact analysis of current and future trade agreements; impact analysis of greenhouse gas abatement strategies under the Kyoto Protocol; impact analysis of the interaction between trade and environmental policies."
"LEAP is a software tool for energy policy analysis and climate change mitigation assessment developed at the Stockholm Environment Institute. LEAP has been adopted by hundreds of organizations in more than 150 countries worldwide."
"MONICA is a dynamic, process-based simulation model for agro ecosystems, simulating water, carbon and nitrogen cycles in soil and crop and their combined impact on crop growth and yield. MONICA calculates a large number of state variables on a daily basis using a handful of weather and site information."
"N-Vino is a dynamic, process-based simulation model for viticulture, simulating water and nitrogen cycles in soil and crop and their combined impact on crop growth and yield. NVino calculates a large number of state variables on a daily basis using a handful of weather and site information."
"N-LES is an empirical model for calculation of annual values of root zone nitrogen leaching. The model comprises a combination of additive and multiplicative effects. N-LES was developed on 600 observations of annual leaching of nitrogen from the root zone from both experimental fields and fields in normal agricultural production in Denmark."
"QUEST 2 is a dynamic macro-economic model of the world economy. It is designed to analyse the economies in the member states of the European Union and their interactions with the rest of the world, especially with the US and Japan."