Library

The library contains a wealth of information on the circular economy for use by policy makers and analysts conducting impact assessments. For more information on impact assessments and the EU's Better Regulation Agenda, please click here.

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    COPERT

    Type of evidence: 

    "COPERT is a software tool used world-wide to calculate air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transport. The development of COPERT is coordinated by the European Environment Agency (EEA), in the framework of the activities of the European Topic Centre for Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre manages the scientific development of the model. COPERT has been developed for official road transport emission inventory preparation in EEA member countries. However, it is applicable to all relevant research, scientific and...

    EIO-LCA

    Type of evidence: 

    "The Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) method estimates the materials and energy resources required for, and the environmental emissions resulting from, activities in our economy. The EIO-LCA method was theorized and developed by economist Wassily Leontief in the 1970s based on his earlier input-output work from the 1930s for which he received the Nobel Prize in Economics. Researchers at the Green Design Institute of Carnegie Mellon University operationalized Leontief's method in the mid-1990s, once sufficient computing power was widely available to perform the large-...

    Development of Guidance on Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Véronique Monier et al.

    Source: 

    BIO by Deloitte, Arcadis, Ecologic Institute, Institute for European Environmental Policy, Umweltbundesamt

    Year: 

    2014

    "The objective of this study is to describe, compare and analyse different types of EPR (extended producer responsibility) systems operating in the EU in order to identify guiding principles for their functioning." (p. 29)

    The Interplay between the Circular Economy and the European Semester - An assessment

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Arno Behrens, Vasileios Rizos

    Source: 

    CEPS

    Year: 

    2017

    The European Semester is the European Union’s annual cycle of economic policy guidance and oversight. Although monitoring the achievement of Europe 2020 Strategy targets, some of which focus on energy and climate change, is among the key actions of the European Semester, the reviewers so far have concentrated on economic policies in the aftermath of the financial and economic crisis. The circular economy is currently part of the European Commission’s agenda for jobs, growth and investment, which are important themes of the Semester. Against this background, this paper assesses the extent...

    Scenario analysis for a circular economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Geert Woltjer

    Source: 

    Wageningen University and Research

    Year: 

    2017

    In many reports scenarios for the circular economy are designed in order to evaluate the macroeconomic, environmental and societal impact of a transition towards a circular economy. We distinguish an opportunity based scenario approach as for example developed by the Ellen MacArthur foundation and a policy-based approach, as for example modelled for Turkey by Bouzaher et al. (2015). Such a policy-based scenario approach is developed

    ...

    The macro-economic and societal impacts of the circular economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Geert Woltjer

    Source: 

    Wageningen University and Research

    Year: 

    2017

    The circular economy is an instrument to reduce primary resource use and environmental impacts of the economy. However, in current policy documents of the EU (EC 2015) it is also seen as a way to increase growth, employment, and international competitiveness. This may be one of the reasons why one would like to include the progress towards the circular economy in the communication between member states and the EC in the European Semester

    ...

    Methodology for the case studies

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Marie-José Smits, Geert Woltjer

    Source: 

    Wageningen University and Research

    Year: 

    2017

    This document is about the methodology and selection of the case studies. It is meant as a guideline for the case studies, and together with the other reports in this work package can be a source of information for policy officers, interest groups and researchers evaluating or performing impact assessments of circular economy policies or specific circular economy projects. The methodology was developed to ensure that the case studies

    ...

    Sustainable Development in the European Union - Monitoring report on progress towards the SDGs in an EU context

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Eurostat

    Year: 

    2017

    "Sustainable development is firmly anchored in the European Treaties and has been at the heart of European policy for a long time. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2015, gives a new impetus to global efforts for achieving sustainable development. The EU is fully committed to playing an active role to maximise progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. This publication marks the beginning of Eurostat’s regular monitoring of progress towards the SDGs in an EU context. The...

    Circular approaches to phosphorus: from research to deployment

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    DG Research and Innovation

    Year: 

    2015

    "This report constitutes a summary of presentations and discussions which took place at the workshop ‘Circular approaches to phosphorus: from research to deployment’ held in Berlin on 4 March 2015. The workshop was jointly organised by the European Commission (DG Research & Innovation), the European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP) and the P-REX project. The workshop aimed to bring together research and demonstration projects on phosphorus recovery and recycling from across Europe, with industry practitioners and experts, to: enable contact between the different projects in order...

    Green Technology Choices: The Environmental and Resource Implications of Low-Carbon Technologies

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    S. Suh, J. Bergesen, T.J. Gibon, E. Hertwich, M. Taptich

    Source: 

    International Resource Panel

    Year: 

    2017

    "What happens when low-carbon electricity supply technologies are deployed alongside energy efficiency technologies? The International Resource Panel's assessment looks at the impacts and benefits for people and the environment." (http://www.resourcepanel.org/reports/green-technology-choices)

    'The macroeconomics of the circular economy transition: a critical review of modelling approaches

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Andrew MacCarthy, Rob Dellink

    Source: 

    OECD

    Year: 

    2017

    "The focus of this paper is to review the literature on the [...] macroeconomic implications of the transition to a more circular economy and increased efficiency in the use of material resources. Addressing this issue is complex. Any such transition will involve multiple interactions between different sectors and countries, and will take place parallel with other trends like digitalisation and automation. Ex ante, economy-wide quantatitve models apppear to be best suited to analysing this transition as they capture the major drivers of economic consequences. Furthermore, there is...

    Policies and Practices for Eco-Innovation Uptake and Circular Economy Transition

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Asel Doranova, Laura Roman, Bettina Bahn-Walkowiak, Henning Wilts, Meghan O'Brien, Stefan Giljum, Mary Ann Kong, Mathieu Hestin...

    Source: 

    Eco Innovation Observatory

    Year: 

    2016

    "The 2016 report of the Eco-Innovation Observatory  Policies and Practices for Eco-Innovation Uptake and Circular Economy Transition discusses the role of policy for eco-innovation in the circular economy transition. It looks at the present framework conditions fostered by European policies and how the circular economy concept is being embedded in a current policy context at the EU level and in the Member States. It also discusses the bottom-up and top-down circular economy challenges. 32 good practice examples of circular economy oriented eco-innovations and initiatives from the EU Member...

    Eco-Innovation: Enabling the transition to a resource efficient Circular Economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Meghan O'Brien, Michal Miedzinski, Stefan Giljum, Asel Doranova...

    Source: 

    Eco Innovation Observatory

    Year: 

    2014

    "The 2014 report of the Eco-Innovation Observatory Eco-Innovation: Enabling the transition to a resource efficient Circular Economy discusses how Eco-Innovation can fuel the transition to a circular economy. This report presents evidence of changes already happening across the EU and highlights some of the key barriers and future challenges toward mainstreaming a circular economic model. It argues that the circular economy concept offers a model of resource flows through the economy that may underpin the vision of a resource-efficient Europe.

    Eco-innovation will enable the...

    Better Regulation Guidelines

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    European Commission

    Year: 

    2017

    "These Guidelines explain what better regulation is and how it should be applied in the day to day practices of Commission officials preparing new initiatives and proposals or managing existing policies and legislation. The Guidelines should be read by all officials involved in regulatory activities and managers who are responsible for quality control and the allocation of resources within Commission departments. Better regulation cannot be implemented without dedicated financial and human resources; DGs must ensure that appropriate centres of expertise (or funcions) and training are...

    Better regulation Toolbox

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    European Commission

    Year: 

    2017

    "This Toolbox complements the main Guidelines on better regulation in staff working document (SWD (2017) 350). It provides more specific and operational guidance to those involved with the various better regulation instruments.

    The Toolbox is structured around 8 main chapters:

    - Chapter 1 presents the key principles and concepts underpinning better regulation at the European Commission;
    - Chapter 2 presents tools for carrying out an impact assessment (IA);
    - Chapter 3 presents tools for assessing specific impacts, whether they are estimated prospectively in the...

    Cities in the circular economy: An initial exploration

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2017

    "This paper outlines some of the challenges cities are facing in today’s linear economy, explores the alternative of a ‘circular city’, and collates our research to date on the benefits of a circular economy for cities. Finally, it outlines outstanding questions on the topic, suggesting possible avenues of research for the future. 

    In the coming decades, cities will be increasingly important as even greater rates of urbanisation are expected, and significant infrastructure investments and developments will be made. Cities could be uniquely positioned to drive a global transition...

    A New Textiles Economy: Redesigning fashion's future

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Andrew Morlet, Rob Opsomer, Dr Sven Herrmann, Laura Balmond, Camille Gillet, Lukas Fuchs

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2017

    "Fashion is a vibrant industry that employs hundreds of millions, generates significant revenues, and touches almost everyone, everywhere. Since the 20th century, clothing has increasingly been considered as disposable, and the industry has become highly globalised, with garments often designed in one country, manufactured in another and sold worldwide at an ever-increasing pace. This trend has been further accentuated over the past 15 years by rising demand from a growing middle class across the globe with higher disposable income, and the

    ...

    Circular Consumer Electronics: An initial exploration

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2018

    "We are increasingly surrounded by ever more complex products, from smartphones and computers to wearable devices. Although these devices have become an essential part of life, most are still treated as if they are disposable. 

    If we want to enjoy the benefits of technological innovation and access to the services that electronic devices bring, we need to create an electronics system that works. This paper offers an initial overview of how the principles of a circular economy could be applied to the electronics industry, where the...

    Nutrient Recovery and Reuse (NRR) in European agriculture: A review of the issues, opportunities, and actions

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Alan Buckwell, Elisabet Nadeu

    Source: 

    RISE Foundation

    Year: 

    2016

    "The report makes a thorough revision of the use of nitrogen and phosphorus in European agriculture and assesses the scope for increased nutrient recovery and reuse and the actions needed to make it possible.

    Exponential growth in the flow of nutrients is causing serious environmental and public health impacts, posing the greatest threat to European food and environmental security. The study identifies three main levers to contain the growing damage: dietary change goals, improved crop and animal nutrient use efficiency and a reduction of waste. The study acknowledges that while ...

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