Library

The library contains a wealth of information on the circular economy for use by policy makers and analysts conducting impact assessments. For more information on impact assessments and the EU's Better Regulation Agenda, please click here.

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    RESYNTEX

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    H2020

    Year: 

    2017

    RESYNTEX is a research project which aims to create a new circular economy concept for the textile and chemical industries. Using industrial symbiosis, it aims to produce secondary raw materials from unwearable textile waste. Core Project Aims: Design a complete value chain from textile waste collection through to the generation of new feedstock for chemicals and textiles; Improve collection approaches while increasing public awareness of textile waste and social involvement; Enable traceability of waste using data aggregation. The collected data will evaluate the performance of the new...

    CIRCULARITY INDICATORS: An Approach to Measuring Circularity: METHODOLOGY

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2015

    A circular economy is a global economic model that aims to decouple economic growth and development from the consumption of finite resources. Increasingly, companies see tremendous opportunity in this model, as it not only allows them to capture additional value from their products and materials, but also to mitigate risks from material price volatility and material supply. Until now, there has been no established way of measuring how effective a company is in making the transition from ‘linear’ to ‘circular’ models , nor have there been any supporting tools. The Circularity Indicators...

    CIRCULARITY INDICATORS: NON-TECHNICAL CASE STUDIES

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2015

    "This document describes illustrative case studies on how the Circularity Indicators developed in the Circularity Indicators Project can be used. Due to the commercial sensitivity of the data it has not been possible to disclose results for actual products. However, the following cases have been developed to give examples of possible uses, and are inspired by actual examples and real world cases of companies adopting circular economy principles." (p. 3)

    Circular by design: Products in the circular economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Mieke De Schoenmakere, Jeroen Gillabel

    Source: 

    EEA

    Year: 

    2017

    "This report explores the circular economy from a product perspective, applying a systemic approach and transition theory. Drivers of product design and usage are discussed in the context of emerging consumption trends and business models. For governance to be effective, it has to address the product life-cycle and the societal context determining it. Indicators and assessment tools will be needed to fill the current data and knowledge gaps." (p. 6)

    Products that go round: Exploring product life extension through design

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Conny Bakker, Feng Wang, Jaco Huisman, Marcel den Hollander

    Source: 

    Delft University of Technology, United Nations University

    Year: 

    2014

    "Product lifespans of electric and electronic products are in decline, with detrimental environmental consequences. This research maps the environmental impacts of refrigerators and laptops against their increasing energy efficiency over time, and finds that product life extension is the preferred strategy in both cases: refrigerators bought in 2011 should be used for 20 years instead of 14, and laptops for at least 7 years instead of 4. Designers however lack expertise to design for product life extension (through longer product life, refurbishment, remanufacturing) and product recycling...

    The Circular Economy and Benefits for Society

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Anders Wijkman, Kristian Skånberg

    Source: 

    Club of Rome, MAVA Foundation

    Year: 

    2015

    "The main purpose of this report is to broadly explore the potential for a significant increase in resource efficiency and to specifically assess what the main benefits for society would be looking at carbon emissions and employment in particular. We are using the Dutch, Finnish, French, Spanish and Swedish economies as test cases." (p. 5)

    Opportunities to tackle Britain's labour market challenges through growth in the circular economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Julian Morgan, Peter Mitchell

    Source: 

    WRAP, Green Alliance

    Year: 

    2015

    "Britain faces huge economic challenges in its use of labour and scarce natural resources. Although unemployment is now falling, the risk of being out of work is higher in some regions and for some types of occupations. While Britain has significantly increased its resource efficiency in recent years, supply risks in an increasingly competitive global economy mean that we need to get better at using natural resources. The analysis in this study shows that these challenges are linked, as improving our resource efficiency can make a valuable contribution to improving Britain’s labour market...

    Earnings, jobs and innovation: the role of recycling in a green economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Anders Bjørn, Christian Fischer, Sabine Haselsteiner, Jan Kosmol, Christian Löwe, Naoko Tojo, Özgür Saki

    Source: 

    EEA

    Year: 

    2011

    "This short report explains the role of recycling in the green economy and examines the evidence of its contribution in Europe, focusing primarily on the economic benefits that recycling offers." (https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/earnings-jobs-and-innovation-the)

    Life cycle impact assessment of beverage packing systems: focus on the collection of post-consumer bottles

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Balint Simon, Mourad Ben Amor, Rita Rita Földényi

    Year: 

    2015

    "Choice of packaging material has a significant contribution to the overall impact of beverage value chain. Collection of post-consumer packaging materials is often controlled by national or regional regulation, which have to be based on sound considerations. Therefore, stakeholders alongside the packaging value chain need for supporting information to select environmentally sound packaging and define own policy. To meet comprehensiveness, five different packaging materials were examined during their whole life cycle. Due to the potentially direct impact of collection system on the human...

    Redefining Industrial Symbiosis

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    D.R. Lombardi, P. Laybourn

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2012

    "The most commonly cited definition of industrial symbiosis (IS), by Chertow (2000), has served well to foster discussion and research for more than a decade. The definition reflected the state of research and practice at the time; as both have advanced, some terms have been interpreted in substantially different ways. In this article we analyze those generally used terms for their connection to the ecological metaphor that is the root of industrial ecology, and their varied interpretations in IS research and practice over time. We then propose an updated definition intended to communicate...

    From an eco-industrial park towards an eco-city: a case study in Suzhou, China

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Chang Yu, Gerard P.J. Dijkema, Martin de Jong, Han Shi

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2015

    "As eco-industrial park policies have been in place for years, many mature eco-industrial parks tend to acquire more than just industrial functions and become new urban districts. We investigated this development and conducted empirical research in Suzhou Industrial Park, to obtain insight in how a mature eco-industrial park influences if not leverages the development of an eco-city. To this end we inventoried and analyzed policy instruments and environmental infrastructures and deduced how in Suzhou Industrial Park these led to improved energy efficiency, reduced pollution and contributed...

    Resource efficiency in Europe - Policies and approaches in 31 EEA member and cooperating countries

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Paweł Kaźmierczyk, Mikkel Stenbæk Hansen, Jens Günther, David McKinnon, Christian Loewe, Fredrik Lingvall, Tamas Kristof Kallay, Jozsef Szlezak, Bettina Bahn-Walkowiak, Marton Herczeg, Dominic Wittmer

    Source: 

    EEA

    Year: 

    2011

    "This report provides an overview of resource efficiency policies and instruments in 31 member and cooperating countries of the EEA’s Eionet network. A detailed survey was conducted during the first half of 2011 to collect, analyse and disseminate information about national experiences in developing and implementing resource efficiency policies, with the goal to facilitate the sharing of experiences and good practice. The report reviews national approaches to resource efficiency and explores similarities and differences in policies, strategies, indicators and targets, policy drivers and...

    German Resource Efficiency Programme (ProgRess) - programme for the sustainable use of natural resources

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety

    Year: 

    2012

    "The current use of natural resources is already far exceeding the Earth’s regenerative capacity. A responsible and efficient use of natural resources will therefore be a key competence for any society seeking to ensure its future viability. Improving resource efficiency can limit environmental damage, strengthen the competitiveness of the German economy, create new jobs and secure long-term employment. Therefore, on 29 February 2012, the Federal Cabinet adopted the German Resource Efficiency Programme (ProgRess). With this, the German government implemented the decision in its Raw...

    Opportunities and limits of recycling: A dynamic-model-based analysis

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2012

    "Ensuring continued resource availability and material flow into sustainable products requires well-designed systems that capture these resources from end-of-life (EOL) products and recycle them into new applications. Understanding the impact
    of product design and recycling system performance on this closure of material cycles requires comprehensive approaches consistent with basic principles, as presented in this article." (p. 347)

    Crunch the can or throw the bottle? Effect of "bottle deposit laws" and municipal recycling programs

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Benjamin Campbell, Hayk Khachatryan, Bridget Behe, Charles Hall, Jennifer Dennis

    Year: 

    2016

    "Although there is growing public awareness about environmental issues, incentive mechanisms leading to individual pro-environmental behaviors remain less investigated. This article examines the impact of bottle deposit laws (BDL), municipal recycling programs (MRP), and the ease of municipal recycling on recycling frequency for numerous products. An online survey of U.S. and Canadian households was conducted to collect data about individuals’ recycling practices and perceptions. We contracted an online survey company, Global Market Insite (GMI), to recruit panelists within their database...

    Industrial symbiosis in Gladstone: a decade of progress and future development

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Artem Golev, Glen D. Corder, Damien P. Giurco

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2014

    "Heavy industrial areas with large volume waste streams show great promise for applying the concept of industrial symbiosis. This article examines industrial symbiosis in Gladstone, one of Australia's rapidly developing heavy industrial areas. Along with the analysis of the area's progress over the last decade and detailed description of existing resource synergies, it also overviews Gladstone's future prospects, including identification of potential resource synergies based on likely future industries and their waste streams, and an estimation of the overall environment benefits from the...

    Limitations of the waste hierarchy for achieving absolute reductions in material throughput

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    S. Van Ewijk, J.A. Stegemann

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2016

    "Dematerialization can serve as a measurable and straightforward strategy for sustainability and requires changes in management of material inputs and waste outputs of the economy. Currently, waste management is strongly inspired by the waste hierarchy, an influential philosophy in waste and resource management that prioritizes practices ranging from waste prevention to landfill. Despite the inclusion and prioritization of prevention in the hierarchy, the positive contribution of the application of the waste hierarchy to dematerializing the economy is not inevitable, nor has it been...

    How effective are current household recycling policies? Results from a national survey of U.S. households

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Jean-Daniel M. Saphores, Hillary Nixon

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2014

    "This paper analyzes a unique dataset collected during a 2006 national survey of U.S. households to explore the effectiveness of common household recycling policies for metals, glass, and plastics: curbside recycling, drop-off recycling, deposit–refund systems (bottle bills), and marginal pricing for household waste. After estimating either generalized ordered logit or multinomial logit models, we find that the most important determinants of household recycling are people's attitudes toward recycling. Our results also suggest that omitting internal variables (perceived recycling obstacles...

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