Library

The library contains a wealth of information on the circular economy for use by policy makers and analysts conducting impact assessments. For more information on impact assessments and the EU's Better Regulation Agenda, please click here.

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    The effect of bioenergy expansion: Food, energy, and environment

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    J. Popp, Z.Lakner, M.Harangi-Rákos, M.Fári

    Source: 

    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

    Year: 

    2014

    "The increasing prices and environmental impacts of fossil fuels have made the production of biofuels to reach unprecedented volumes over the last 15 years. Given the increasing land requirement for biofuel production, the assessment of the impacts that extensive biofuel production may cause to food supply and to the environment has considerable importance. Agriculture faces some major inter-connected challenges in delivering food security at a time of increasing pressures from population growth, changing consumption patterns and dietary preferences, and post-harvest losses. At the same...

    Urban biowaste, a sustainable source of bioenergy?

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Mariel Vilella

    Source: 

    Zero Waste Europe

    Year: 

    2016

    "Although most bioenergy is produced by burning agricultural and forestry biomass, it is also generated by burning the organic parts of municipal solid waste, biowaste or urban biomass. This includes food waste from restaurants, households, farmers markets, gardens, textiles, clothing, paper and other materials of organic origin. But have you ever tried to fuel a bonfire with a salad? Probably not, so this may not be the most efficient use of urban biowaste." (https://www.zerowasteeurope.eu/...

    Production of biofuels and biomolecules in the framework of circular economy: A regional case study

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Nicolas Jacquet, Eric Haubruge, Aurore Richel

    Source: 

    Wate Management and Research

    Year: 

    2015

    "Faced to the economic and energetic context of our society, it is widely recognised that an alternative to fossil fuels and oil-based products will be needed in the nearest future. In this way, development of urban biorefinery could bring many solutions to this problem. Study of the implementation of urban biorefinery highlights two sustainable configurations that provide solutions to the Walloon context by promoting niche markets, developing circular economy and reducing transport of supply feedstock. First, autonomous urban biorefineries are proposed, which use biological waste for the...

    Bioenergy: how much can we expect for 2050?

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Helmut Haberl, Karl-Heinz Erb, Fridolin Krausmann, Steve Running, Timothy D Searchinger and W Kolby Smith

    Source: 

    ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS

    Year: 

    2013

    "Estimates of global primary bioenergy potentials in the literature span almost three orders of magnitude. We narrow that range by discussing biophysical constraints on bioenergy potentials resulting from plant growth (NPP) and its current human use. In the last 30 years, terrestrial NPP was almost constant near 54 PgC yr−1, despite massive efforts to increase yields in agriculture and forestry. The global human appropriation of terrestrial plant production has doubled in the last century. We estimate the maximum physical potential of the world's total land area outside croplands,...

    Biofuels in the long-run global energy supply mix for transportation

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Govinda R. Timilsina

    Source: 

    Philosophical Transaction od the Royal Society A

    Year: 

    2014

    "Various policy instruments along with increasing oil prices have contributed to a sixfold increase in global biofuels production over the last decade (2000–2010). This rapid growth has proved controversial, however, and has raised concerns over potential conflicts with global food security and climate change mitigation. To address these concerns, policy support is now focused on advanced or second-generation biofuels instead of crop-based first-generation biofuels. This policy shift, together with the global financial crisis, has slowed the growth of biofuels production, which has...

    Bioenergy and europes quest for a circular economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Lisa Benedetti

    Source: 

    Eubioenergy

    Year: 

    2015

    "Europe is on the move to become a ‘circular economy’ which is more competitive and resource efficient. The goal is a more circular flow of materials and energy so that Europeans use and consume in a way that creates minimal waste and puts less pressure on natural resources on this continent and other parts of the world. Sounds like a common sense plan…right? Yes, but one important question arises. Why isn’t the Commission including different types of biomass (biological material) as part of the circular economy equation?" (...

    Ensuring bioenergy comes clean in the Clean Energy Package

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Sini Eräjää, Hanna Aho, Laura Buffet

    Source: 

    BirdLife Europe, Fern, Transport & Environment

    Year: 

    2017

    "European climate and energy policies are built on the myth that all bioenergy - being a renewable energy source - is good for the climate and good for the environment. As the use of bioenergy in the EU is expected to more than double by 2020 compared to 2005, it's becoming clear that bioenergy is not the clean dream we all hoped it would be. In some cases it can even increase CO2 emissions (compared to fossil fuels) and in numerous instances it threatens nature by putting additional pressure on already burdened agricultural land and forests. As the demand for bioenergy grows (pushed by...

    Sustainable alternatives for land-based biofuels in the European Union: Assessment of options and development of a policy strategy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Bettina Kampman, Anouk van Grinsven, Harry Croezen

    Source: 

    CE Delft

    Year: 

    2012

    Discusses sustainable biofuels, alternatives to land-based biofuels, how to meet the RED and FQD targets sustainability, and developing scenarios for 202 with respect to the EU.

    The Litte Book of Biofuels

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    BirdLife International, European Environmental Bureau (EEB), Transport & Environment (T&E)

    Year: 

    2014

    "With the launch of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) in 2009, Europe’s demand for biofuels has skyrocketed. To meet this new demand, the global production of biofuels has also increased significantly. In fact, did you know that every car in Europe uses a blend of biofuels? That’s how common this product has become. Biofuels use vegetable oils, cereals, sugars and waste fats – mainly extracted from rapeseed, soy, palm trees, corn and wheat – to create energy. Because biofuels are derived from plant products, any increase or decrease in their use has a direct impact on agriculture...

    Synopsis

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-products

    Year: 

    2014

    "The National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB), an algal biofuels research consortium, was formed to specifically address the objectives set forth by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE), Office of Biomass Programs (now called the Bioenergy Technologies Office, BETO), under the funding opportunity announcement DE-FOA-0000123, “Development of Algal/Advanced Biofuels Consortia”. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided the funds for this effort. In this announcement DOE sought consortia that would “...

    Waste-to-Energy Workshop Summary

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Energetics Incorporated

    Source: 

    US Department of Energy

    Year: 

    2015

    "This report is based on the proceedings of the Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Workshop held by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) on November 5, 2014, in Arlington, VA. The workshop gathered stakeholders from industry, academia, national laboratories, and government to discuss the issues and potential for research, development, and demonstration activities to pave the way for large-scale production of cost-competitive, renewable fuels from wet waste biomass resources. The ideas provided here represent a snapshot of the perspectives and ideas generated by the...

    Biofuels and Bioproducts from Wet and Gaseous Waste Streams: Challenges and Opportunities

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    US Department of Energy

    Year: 

    2017

    "This report draws together activities related to wet and gaseous waste feedstocks into a single document. It enables an amplified focus on feedstocks in the relevant technology and potential markets category. Also, this report helps to inform and support ongoing wet and gaseous resource recovery activities in the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and in the broader federal space. Historically, the office has identified wet and gaseous waste feedstocks as potentially advantageous, but has not pursued them with a sustained focus. This document seeks to position these waste streams...

    2015 Bioenergy Market Report

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Ethan Warner, Kristi Moriarty, John Lewis, Anelia Milbrandt, Amy Schwab

    Source: 

    US Department of Energy

    Year: 

    2017

    "This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO...

    Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop: Summary

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Energetics Incorporated

    Source: 

    US Department of Energy

    Year: 

    2014

    "This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Demonstration and Deployment (D&D) Strategy Workshop, held on March 12–13, 2014, at Argonne National Laboratory. The workshop gathered stakeholders from industry, academia, national laboratories, and government to discuss the issues and potential for demonstration and deployment activities to pave the way for large-scale production of cost-competitive, renewable fuels from biomass resources. The ideas provided here represent a snapshot of the perspectives and ideas generated...

    Come fry with me: China uses waste cooking oil from restaurants to fuel commercial airline flight

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Tracy You

    Source: 

    Daily Mail

    Year: 

    2015

    "Hainan Airlines completed China's first commercial flight using biofuel. Waste cooking oil is used as the raw material to mix with normal jet fuel. The Boeing 737-800 flew around 100 pas-sengers from Shanghai to Bejiing. A handful of countries pos-sesses the ability to create its own biofuel. Waste oil is major health problem in China as it is collected from gutters and sold back to restaurants" (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/...

    MefCO2

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Ángel Sánchez Díaz, Rocío Pacios Blein

    Source: 

    Spire2030

    Year: 

    2014

    "Methanol represents one of the most common and widespread platform chemicals and precursors for further synthesis, and is traditionally produced from synthesis gas, obtained by the reforming of natural gas. This methanol synthesis process operates in a stable, high-throughput manner and demands low carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide ratios in feed. The current project is to encompass flexible (in operation and feed) methanol synthesis with high carbon dioxide concentration-streams as an input, the latter originating from thermal power stations using fossil fuels. The technology is also...

    MEMERE2

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Fausto Gallucci

    Source: 

    Spire2030

    Year: 

    2015

    "MEthane activation via integrated MEmbrane REactors (MEMERE) responds to the EU Horizon 2020 call SPIRE-05-2015 and is a research and innovation project aiming at methane activation towards C2+ . The focus of the project is on the air separation through novel MIEC membranes integrated within a reactor operated at high temperature for OCM allowing integration of different process steps in a single multifunctional unit and achieving much higher yields compared with conventional reactor." (https://www.spire2030.eu/memere)

    ROMEO

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Robert FRANKE

    Source: 

    H2020

    Year: 

    2016

    "The ROMEO project tackles process intensification for catalytic-driven and eco-friendly reaction systems. ROMEO stands for "Reactor Optimisation by Membrane Enhanced Operation". It is a Research and Innovation project and has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. ROMEO focuses on a new reactor concept to drasti-cally reduce energy consumption. It will lead to the manufacturing of bulk chemicals at consider-ably lower operational and investment costs. The aim of ROMEO is to reduce energy consump-tion by up to 80% and emissions by up to...

    CarbonNext

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Dennis Krämer, Katy Armstrong, Hans Bolscher

    Source: 

    H2020

    Year: 

    2016

    "CarbonNext is a Horizon2020 project funded by the European Commission to investigate the opportunities for alternative carbon feedstocks as we move away from using fossil fuels as the main source. We need to find new sources of carbon for industrial process if we are to create a sustainable chemical process industry in Europe that reduces its carbon dioxide emissions. CarbonNext's objective is to evaluate the potential of new carbon sources in Europe. It will pri-marily focus on new sources of carbon to be used as a feedstock and secondarily the impact this will have on on energy...

    Comparing biobased products from oil crops versus sugar crops with regard to non-renewable energy use, GHG emissions and land use

    Author names: 

    Harriëtte L. Bos, Koen P.H. Meesters, Sjaak G. Conijn, Wim J. Corré, Martin K. Patel

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2016

    "Non-renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use of two biobased products and biofuel from oil crops is investigated and compared with products from sugar crops. In a bio-based economy chemicals, materials and energy carriers will be produced from biomass. Next to side streams, also vegetable oils and sugars are expected to become important resources for these products. Application of these resources calls for effective resource use, with minimal environmental impacts. In this paper we study a number of available options and their trade-offs. Use of vegetable oils in a...

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