Library

The library contains a wealth of information on the circular economy for use by policy makers and analysts conducting impact assessments. For more information on impact assessments and the EU's Better Regulation Agenda, please click here.

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    Redefining Industrial Symbiosis

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    D.R. Lombardi, P. Laybourn

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2012

    "The most commonly cited definition of industrial symbiosis (IS), by Chertow (2000), has served well to foster discussion and research for more than a decade. The definition reflected the state of research and practice at the time; as both have advanced, some terms have been interpreted in substantially different ways. In this article we analyze those generally used terms for their connection to the ecological metaphor that is the root of industrial ecology, and their varied interpretations in IS research and practice over time. We then propose an updated definition intended to communicate...

    German Resource Efficiency Programme (ProgRess) - programme for the sustainable use of natural resources

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety

    Year: 

    2012

    "The current use of natural resources is already far exceeding the Earth’s regenerative capacity. A responsible and efficient use of natural resources will therefore be a key competence for any society seeking to ensure its future viability. Improving resource efficiency can limit environmental damage, strengthen the competitiveness of the German economy, create new jobs and secure long-term employment. Therefore, on 29 February 2012, the Federal Cabinet adopted the German Resource Efficiency Programme (ProgRess). With this, the German government implemented the decision in its Raw...

    Opportunities and limits of recycling: A dynamic-model-based analysis

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2012

    "Ensuring continued resource availability and material flow into sustainable products requires well-designed systems that capture these resources from end-of-life (EOL) products and recycle them into new applications. Understanding the impact
    of product design and recycling system performance on this closure of material cycles requires comprehensive approaches consistent with basic principles, as presented in this article." (p. 347)

    Assessment of resource efficiency indicators and targets

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Shailendra Mudgal, Adrian Tan, Sarah Lockwood, Nina Eisenmenger, Marina Fischer-Kowalski, Stefan Giljum, Martin Brucker

    Year: 

    2012

    "This study investigates how indicators and targets of resource use can be applied in policy to increase resource efficiency in the EU. The objective of this study is to identify and assess indicators related to resource use and their environmental impacts and to evaluate the possibility of setting corresponding targets. Ultimately, the study aims to present recommendations for the implementation of indicators and targets in the EU policy context." (p. 19)

    A reflection on the Dutch Sustainable Public Procurement Programme

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Frans Melissen, Harry Reinders

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2012

    "Public procurement can contribute significantly to achieving sustainable
    development. The Dutch government has indicated that sustainable procurement
    is one of its priorities and has developed and installed a Sustainable Public
    Procurement Programme (SPPP). This essay reviews the current programme and
    assesses its actual contribution to sustainable development. Specific questions are
    raised with respect to both the set up and the content of the current decision
    criteria for supplier selection and contract provisions. This article argues that, so...

    Closing the eco-innovation gap - an economic opportunity for business

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Meghan O'Brien et al...

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2012

    "This report focuses on the economic benefits from eco-innovation. It builds on the last EIO Annual Report, The Eco-Innovation Challenge: Pathways to a Resource-Efficient Europe (EIO 2011a), which made an environmental case for expanding and intensifying eco-innovation activities across the EU. We consider eco-innovation to be a chance for economic and environmental agendas to walk hand in hand. This report argues that eco-innovation in European companies is key to achieving systematic change of entire economies. This implies both reduced absolute consumption of natural resources and...

    Enabling closed resource loops in electronics: understanding consumer disposal behaviour using insights from diffusion models

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Deepali Sinha Khetriwal, Ivana First

    Year: 

    2012

    "The paper explores consumer disposal behaviour, especially in the context of durable electronic products. The purpose of the research is to understand why, how and when consumers dispose of their durable products. The research aims to provide policy makers, waste managers and product marketers new insights on consumer disposal behaviour that will help improve policy, encourage better resource management and incentivise product designs that maximise environmental and social benefits. We apply knowledge from the extensive literature on diffusion modelling to develop and test our hypothesis...

    Towards the Circular Economy Vol. 1: an economic and business rationale for an accelerated transition

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2012

    "Using product case studies and economic-wide analysis, this report details the potential for significant benefits across the EU. It argues that a subset of the EU manufacturing sector could realise net materials cost savings worth up to $ 630 billion p.a. towards 2025 - stimulating economic activity in areas of product development, remanufacturing and refurbishment." (https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/...

    Risks and Opportunities in the Global Phosphate Rock Market

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Marjolein de Ridder, Sijbren de Jong, Joshua Polchar, Stephanie Lingemann

    Source: 

    HCSS

    Year: 

    2012

    "The report aims primarily to raise awareness within Europe that the EU is almost entirely dependent on imported phosphate rock from the rest of the world and consequently vulnerable to disruptions in the supply of this important commodity. This means that the European food security and agricultural sector are at risk. The report formulates several perspectives for action on how the EU could deal with developments on the phosphate rock market and reduce its vulnerability to potential shocks." (p. 18)

    Sustainable alternatives for land-based biofuels in the European Union: Assessment of options and development of a policy strategy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Bettina Kampman, Anouk van Grinsven, Harry Croezen

    Source: 

    CE Delft

    Year: 

    2012

    Discusses sustainable biofuels, alternatives to land-based biofuels, how to meet the RED and FQD targets sustainability, and developing scenarios for 202 with respect to the EU.