The library contains a wealth of information on the circular economy for use by policy makers and analysts conducting impact assessments. For more information on impact assessments and the EU's Better Regulation Agenda, please click here.
Almut Reichel, Mieke De Schoenmakere, Jeroen Gillabel
This report seeks to help policy makers to better understand the circular economy, by focusing on four of its dimensions; the main enabling factors and transition challenges, indicators for measuring progress and contextual issues. One of the main conclusions regarding the monitoring of progress is that for now the focus is on developments in resource efficiency and waste management, which covers a part, but not the whole, of the circular economy. More data is needed on eco-design, the sharing economy, and repair and reuse. Furthermore, social indicators, industrial symbiosis indicators...
This report wants to provide countries and their policy makers who are interested in a transition to the circular economy with a toolkit. To test this toolkit, a case study was performed for Denmark. It focused on opportunities in several sectors; food and beverage, construction and real estate, machinery, plastic packaging and hospitals. Eight important conclusions were drawn:
• The transition to a circular economy can deliver the expected lasting benefits of a more innovative, resilient and productive economy.
• The circular economy provides many opportunities that are...
Ellen MacArthur Foundation, the McKinsey Center for Business and Environment (sponsered by Stiftungsfonds für Umweltökonomie)
This report seeks to answer five questions:
1. Is Europe’s current resource model effective?
2. Will the technology revolution solve Europe’s resource issues?
3. What would a circular economy in Europe look like?
4. What economic outcomes could a circular model achieve in Europe?
5. If Europe decided to shift towards a circular model, how could policy-makers and business leaders accelerate the transition?
Three of Europe’s most resource-intensive basic needs are discussed; food, mobility and the built environment, all together comprising 60% of...
Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment
Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment
This program explores the challenges and possibilities for realizing a circular economy by 2050 in the Netherlands. Both current and follow-up steps are identified for this purpose. The following barriers for the transition to a circular economy are mentioned: regulations, the non-internalisation of external effects, the lack of knowledge for technical, social and system innovation, non-circular behaviour of citizens and professionals, adaptation problems in the production chain, consolidated investments and interests, limited influence in the international playing field. The Dutch...
Technopolis Group, Fraunhofer ISI, thinkstep, Wuppertal Institute
This report takes a look at several circular economy practices and identifies regulatory barriers that obstruct their full potential. Subsequently, recommendations are provided on how to overcome these barriers.
"This report examines the potential for increasing resource efficiency in industrialized countries, including the G7, emerging economies and developing countries. It focuses on the use of natural resources and the environment, including energy, land, water, raw materials: biotic and abiotic, marine and freshwater, oceanic and terrestrial. The evidence base includes the recent and ongoing work of the International Resource Panel, as well as that of a number of international organizations that have addressed this issue. The report also seeks to identify transboundary effects and discusses...
The MONSOON project - MOdel-based coNtrol framework for Site-wide OptimizatiON of data-intensive processes - aims to establish data-driven methodology to support identification and exploitation of optimization potentials by applying model-based predictive controls so as to perform plant and site-wide optimization of production process. The ambition of MONSOON project is shared by 2 significant process industries from the sectors of aluminium and plastic.
"This report explores the circular economy from a product perspective, applying a systemic approach and transition theory. Drivers of product design and usage are discussed in the context of emerging consumption trends and business models. For governance to be effective, it has to address the product life-cycle and the societal context determining it. Indicators and assessment tools will be needed to fill the current data and knowledge gaps." (p. 6)
"An additional €320 billion of circular economy investment opportunities is available to investors in the European Union (EU) until 2025 that can be unlocked through modest action by policy makers or industry. This investment would put the EU on the path to seize the economic, societal, and environmental benefits of the transition to a circular economy and mitigate the mounting risks that reside in conventional industrial assets in an era of rapid change." (p. 10)
Transforming the linear economy, which has remained the dominant model since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, into a circular one is by no means an easy task. Such a radical change entails a major transformation of our current production and consumption patterns, which in turn will have a significant impact on the economy, the environment and society. Understanding these impacts is crucial for researchers as well as for policy-makers engaged in designing future policies in the field. This requires developing an in-depth knowledge of the concept of the circular economy, its processes...
"ECOBULK through a large scale demonstration effort will contribute to “closing the loop” of composite products in the automotive, furniture and building sectors by promoting greater re-use, upgrade, refurbishment and recycle of products, parts, and materials. It will bring opportunities for both the environment and the economy by offering business opportunities along the entire new defined supply and value chains. ECOBULK approach will be based on identifying and promoting commonalities in processes, technologies, products and services ensuring replicability and transferability to other...
"Europe is the second world producer of pulp and paper, manufacturing 130 million tonnes in 2014 and representing 23% of world production. The EU pulp and paper manufacturing and converting industries generate an annual turnover of €180 billion, representing 1,26% of the European GDP. In particular, the Pulp and Paper industry (PPI) has a turnover of €75 billion, comprises 920 plants and provides 180,000 jobs in Europe directly, and 1.5 million in the value chain. This sector is resource intensive and produces 11 million tonnes of waste yearly . It has been found that 25-40% of municipal...
World Economic Forum and The Boston Consulting Group
World Economic Forum, The Boston Consulting Group
"This report is the first publication of a multi-year project for guiding and supporting the Engineering & Construction (E&C) industry during its current transformation. The report describes the industry’s present state, assesses relevant global trends and their impact on the industry, and devises an industry-transformation framework with key areas for development and action. It also features many best practices and case studies of innovative approaches or solutions, and offers a view – at different levels, such as at the company-, industry- and sector-level – of how the future of...
This report provides an overview of the Dutch construction and demolition sector in relation to the circular economy. To this end it addresses key isssues that arise due to resource-inefficiency and explores what a circular construction and demolition sector could look like. Furthermore, recommendations for the future are presented.