Library

The library contains a wealth of information on the circular economy for use by policy makers and analysts conducting impact assessments. For more information on impact assessments and the EU's Better Regulation Agenda, please click here.

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    Circular economy in Europe: Developing the knowledge base

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Almut Reichel, Mieke De Schoenmakere, Jeroen Gillabel

    Source: 

    EEA

    Year: 

    2016

    This report seeks to help policy makers to better understand the circular economy, by focusing on four of its dimensions; the main enabling factors and transition challenges, indicators for measuring progress and contextual issues. One of the main conclusions regarding the monitoring of progress is that for now the focus is on developments in resource efficiency and waste management, which covers a part, but not the whole, of the circular economy. More data is needed on eco-design, the sharing economy, and repair and reuse. Furthermore, social indicators, industrial symbiosis indicators...

    Circular Economy: Measuring innovation in product chains

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    José Potting, Marko Hekkert, Ernst Worrell, Aldert Hanemaaijer

    Source: 

    PBL

    Year: 

    2016

    This Dutch study aims to explore how the transition to a circular economy can be measured in the production chain and focuses on asking relevant policy questions for plastic packaging (bottles and other plastic packaging) and electrical devices (washing machines and dryers, and fridges and freezers). However, it does not provide corresponding indicators.

    Three types of CE-transitions are identified:
    • CE-transitions that place the development of a specific, radical new technology central
    • CE-transitions that place socio-economic change central
    • CE-transitions...

    Delivering the circular economy - a toolkit for policymakers

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Andrew Morlet et al.

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2016

    This report wants to provide countries and their policy makers who are interested in a transition to the circular economy with a toolkit. To test this toolkit, a case study was performed for Denmark. It focused on opportunities in several sectors; food and beverage, construction and real estate, machinery, plastic packaging and hospitals. Eight important conclusions were drawn:

    • The transition to a circular economy can deliver the expected lasting benefits of a more innovative, resilient and productive economy.
    • The circular economy provides many opportunities that are...

    Growth within: A circular economy vision for a competitive Europe

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Ellen MacArthur et al.

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation, the McKinsey Center for Business and Environment (sponsered by Stiftungsfonds für Umweltökonomie)

    Year: 

    2015

    This report seeks to answer five questions:

    1. Is Europe’s current resource model effective?
    2. Will the technology revolution solve Europe’s resource issues?
    3. What would a circular economy in Europe look like?
    4. What economic outcomes could a circular model achieve in Europe?
    5. If Europe decided to shift towards a circular model, how could policy-makers and business leaders accelerate the transition?

    Three of Europe’s most resource-intensive basic needs are discussed; food, mobility and the built environment, all together comprising 60% of...

    Circular economy: a commentary from the perspectives of the natural and social sciences

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    European Academies Science Advisory Council

    Source: 

    EASAC

    Year: 

    2015

    This commentary by the EASAC primarily examines the proposed benefits and potential enabling policies of the circular economy. A broad range of sources is used to recognize gaps and inadequacies in proposed benefits and policies in order to foster a substantial discussion among stakeholders as to how to proceed in the transition process. The study also examines barriers and indicators and comments on their nature and efficacy respectively. Furthermore, the commentary provides advice regarding avoidance of barriers and the use of proper indicators.

    A Circular Economy in the Netherlands by 2050

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

    Source: 

    Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

    Year: 

    2016

    This program explores the challenges and possibilities for realizing a circular economy by 2050 in the Netherlands. Both current and follow-up steps are identified for this purpose. The following barriers for the transition to a circular economy are mentioned: regulations, the non-internalisation of external effects, the lack of knowledge for technical, social and system innovation, non-circular behaviour of citizens and professionals, adaptation problems in the production chain, consolidated investments and interests, limited influence in the international playing field. The Dutch...

    Regulatory barriers for the Circular Economy: Lessons from ten case studies

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Joost van Barneveld et al.

    Source: 

    Technopolis Group, Fraunhofer ISI, thinkstep, Wuppertal Institute

    Year: 

    2016

    This report takes a look at several circular economy practices and identifies regulatory barriers that obstruct their full potential. Subsequently, recommendations are provided on how to overcome these barriers.

    Mastering Circular Business with the Value Hill

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Circle Economy

    Source: 

    Circle Economy, Sustainable Finance Lab, Nuovolente, TU Delft

    Year: 

    2016

    This paper targets businesses who aspire to transition to a more circular model. The paper advocates for and describes a circular business model (or rather collection of business models) and tran-sition tool called the Value Hill. The value hill provides businesses with detailed information regarding how to best transition to a circular model as well as nuanced descriptions of best practice options. A key component of the Value hill is Network Organization which is an overarching concept/model/tool that encourages increased efficiency and circularity through collaborative partnerships and...

    Job Creation in the Circular Economy - Increasing Resource Efficiency in Northern Ireland

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Peter Mitchell, Martin Doherty

    Source: 

    ReNEW

    Year: 

    2015

    "This report addresses the broader aspects of circular economy employment in Northern Ireland. For circular economy activities such as recycling, re-use, re-manufacturing and bio-refining activities it examines for Northern Ireland: regional and occupation patterns of employment and how these might develop in the future; the potential for creating jobs in areas of higher unemployment; the likely location of occupations with appropriate skills amongst the unemployed and whether a growing circular economy can reverse the trend of declining mid-level occupations." (...

    Circular Advantage: Innovative Business Models and Technologies to Create Value in a World without Limits to Growth

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Accenture

    Source: 

    Accenture

    Year: 

    2014

    This report mainly focuses on the question what companies can do to become more circular, and why it is in their best interest to do so. To this end, it among others discusses several business models, disruptive technologies and capabilities.

    Business Model Innovation in a Circular Economy Reasons for Non-Acceptance of Circular Business Models

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Patrick Planing

    Source: 

    Hochschule Pforzheim University

    Year: 

    2016

    "The overall aim of this paper is to develop a new conceptual framework for business model innovation in a circular economy and to explore the reasons for consumer non-adoption of business models in this context." (p. 1)

    Opportunities for a circular economy in the Netherlands

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Ton Bastein, Elsbeth Roelofs, Elmer Rietveld, Alwin Hoogendoorn

    Source: 

    TNO

    Year: 

    2013

    "This report analyses the opportunities and obstacles that will present themselves as the Netherlands moves towards a more circular economy. It proposes a number of actions that can be taken, particularly by the government, to accelerate this process." (https://www.government.nl/documents/reports/2013/10/04/opportunities-for...)

    Resource Efficiency: Potential and Economic Implications

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Paul Ekins, Nick Hughes et al.

    Source: 

    International Resource Panel

    Year: 

    2017

    "This report examines the potential for increasing resource efficiency in industrialized countries, including the G7, emerging economies and developing countries. It focuses on the use of natural resources and the environment, including energy, land, water, raw materials: biotic and abiotic, marine and freshwater, oceanic and terrestrial. The evidence base includes the recent and ongoing work of the International Resource Panel, as well as that of a number of international organizations that have addressed this issue. The report also seeks to identify transboundary effects and discusses...

    I-ThERM

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Spire2030

    Year: 

    2017

    I-ThERM's goal is to investigate, design, build and demonstrate innovative plug and play waste heat recovery solutions to facilitate optimum utilisation of energy in selected applications with high replicability and energy recovery potential in the temperature range 70-1000 degrees Celcius.

    Indus3Es

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Spire2030

    Year: 

    2017

    Indus3Es SYSTEM is aimed to recover and revalue non-recovered low-exergy surplus heat in energy intensive industrial processes. Indus3Es System will upgrade low temperature waste heat streams to process heat streams at higher temperature levels and then use them in internal industrial process, reducing primary energy consumption of the industry.

    SusPIRE

    Type of evidence: 

    Year: 

    2017

    SusPIRE project assimilates in its conception the sustainable energy use challenge described in the European SETPLAN and in SPIRE road map. It addresses its efforts to energy intensive in-dustries and within this segment market to energy recovery from residual heat streams. To achieve this goal a two clearly differentiated working areas will be key aspects of this project. Technology area will include the development of materials and equipment. New Heat Transfer Fluids (HTF) and Phase Change Materials (PCM) will be the base for manufacture high efficiency heat exchangers in terms of energy...

    SYMBIOPTIMA

    Type of evidence: 

    Year: 

    2017

    SYMBIOPTIMA is an H2020 project funded under the SPIRE-6 action. The project proposes a completely new paradigm for industrial clusters: the human-mimetic symbiosis. Drawing inspiration from one of the most complex biological organism, namely the human body, it promotes the mutual interaction of diverse industries, also among different sectors, for beneficial reuse of flows (e.g. water, waste, by-products, energy, recycled materials) that could result in a more resource-efficient production at network level, and in fewer adverse environmental impacts. Synergy and optimization of the flows...

    TASIO

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Spire2030

    Year: 

    2017

    The main objective of TASIO project is to develop solutions dealing with the development of Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology. These solutions are able to recover the waste heat produced in energetic intensive (EII) processes of industrial sectors such as cement, glass, steelmaking and petrochemical and transform it into useful energy for internal or external use. Furthermore, WHRS are also developed and tested to recover and transform the thermal energy of the flue gases of EII into mechanical energy for internal use (compressors)....

    VULKANO

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    H2020

    Year: 

    2017

    The overall objective of VULKANO project is to design, implement and validate an advanced retrofitting integrated solution to increase the energy and environmental efficiency in existing preheating and melting industrial furnaces currently fed with natural gas. This will be achieved through implementing combined new solutions based on high-temperature phase change materials (PCMs), new refractories, optimized co-firing, advanced monitoring and control systems and a holistic in-house predictive tool.

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