Breakthrough without subsidies? PV business model experiments in the Netherlands

European markets are realtively imbalanced in regard to solar consumption, with Germany and Italy dominating the industry. Moreover, solar as a service or third party owned solar has yet to be as prominent in Europe as in the United States. In the United States changes in legislation allowed for the proliferation of the industry. Advantages of TPO solar companies is that initial investment costs are steeply reduced and the technological challenges of installation become a non-issue when left to a company. These act as major incentives and advantages to buy in. In the Netherlands some small TPO solar companies have emerged, including Greenchoice, but Dutch authorities as of 2013 were slow to provide policy environment to both welcome investment into TPO solar as well as protect consumers so that they are encouraged to buy in.


Scientific article

Author names: 

J.C.C.M. Huijben; G.P.J. Verbong

Length (pp): 





Eindhoven university of technology, School of Innovation Sciences

Type of evidence: 


Policy changes: 

Expected changes of economic processes: 

Indirect effects on the economy: 

Economic impacts: 

Time frame for impacts to materialize: 

Enabling factors: 

Administrative level: 

Method of valuation: 

Excel ID: