This report wants to contribute to a better understanding of the green economy and all the major forces and policies involved. It predominantly focuses on improving resource efficiency from a macro-economic perspective, for which eco-innovation is a primary enabling factor. However, the spread of technologies derived from eco-innovation often is obstructed by several barriers, such as finance, knowledge, costs, markets etc. Fiscal reforms, like environmental taxes and emission trading schemes are also crucial major enabling factors, but to what extent depends on their design (rebound effects are a risk here). Furthermore, a significant amount of financial resources is needed as well to finance sustainable investments, for the green economy transition is capital-intensive and requires a long-term vision. The financial crisis set back this transition, because it fostered short-term, economic thinking, which needs to be overcome in order to succeed.