Product as a service

A Strategy for Material Supply Chain Sustainability: Enabling a Circular Economy in the Electronics Industry through Green Engineering

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Megan P. O'Connor, Julie B. Zimmerman, Paul T. Anastas, and Desiree L. Plata

Source: 

ACS Sustainable Che. Eng.

Year: 

2016

Rapid innovation in the field of electronic technologies through the use of rare earth and specialty elements (RESE) has made the electronics industry one of the most rapidly evolving industries to date. However, innovations to har-vest these same materials from complex waste streams have not kept pace, thus leading to an unsustainable material supply chain reliant on the mining of increasingly difficult-to-extract ores. Here, we aim to provide a strategy to mitigate these challenges, identifying the technical research and development needed to further sustainable electronics through Green...

Recycling of rare earths: a critical review

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Koen Binnemans, Peter Tom Jones, Bart Blanpain, Tom Van Gerven, Yongxiang Yang, Allan Walton, Matt-hias Buchert

Source: 

Journal of Cleaner Production

Year: 

2013

The rare-earth elements (REEs) are becoming increasingly important in the transition to a green economy, due to their essential role in permanent magnets, lamp phosphors, catalysts, rechargeable batteries etc. With China presently producing more than 90% of the global REE output and its increasingly tight export quota, the rest of the world is confronted with a REE supply risk. Mining companies are now actively seeking new exploitable REE deposits while some old mines are being reopened. Because of the absence of economical and/or operational primary deposits on their territory, many...

Recycling of WEEE's: An economic assessment of present and future e-waste streams

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Federica Cucchiella, Idiano D'Adamo, S.C.Lenny Koh, Paolo Rosa

Source: 

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Year: 

2015

Waste from Electric and Electronic Equipments (WEEEs) is currently considered to be one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world, with an estimated growth rate going from 3% up to 5% per year. The recycling of Electric or electronic waste (E-waste) products could allow the diminishing use of virgin resources in manufacturing and, consequently, it could contribute in reducing the environmental pollution. Given that EU is trying, since the last two decades, to develop a circular economy based on the exploitation of resources recovered by wastes, a comprehensive framework supporting...

Recycling of metals from urban mines- a strategic evaluation

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Zhi Sun, Yanping Xiao, Hanneke Agterhuis, Jilt Sietsma, Yongxiang Yang

Source: 

Journal of Cleaner Production

Year: 

2015

Urban mining has attracted increasing attention as a research topic, owing to the high growth rate, environmental issues, and market potential of waste generated in urban areas. Metal recovery from such waste has become increasingly important especially in accordance with the concept of metal criticality. This study develops a model by evaluating various types of urban waste in order to understand the criticality of these waste streams and determine their potential for metal recovery. Two factors, i.e. the resource index and technology index, are defined and assessed through a systematic...

Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Komal Habib, Keshav Parajuly, and Henrik Wenzel

Source: 

Environ. Sci. Technol.

Year: 

2015

Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of...

Breakthrough without subsidies? PV business model experiments in the Netherlands

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

J.C.C.M. Huijben; G.P.J. Verbong

Source: 

Eindhoven university of technology, School of Innovation Sciences

Year: 

2013

European markets are realtively imbalanced in regard to solar consumption, with Germany and Italy dominating the industry. Moreover, solar as a service or third party owned solar has yet to be as prominent in Europe as in the United States. In the United States changes in legislation allowed for the proliferation of the industry. Advantages of TPO solar companies is that initial investment costs are steeply reduced and the technological challenges of installation become a non-issue when left to a company. These act as major incentives and advantages to buy in. In the Netherlands some small...

Spreading the rooftop revolution: What policies enable solar-as-a-service

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Harold Overholm

Source: 

University of Cambridge Institute for Manfacturing

Year: 

2015

Overholm explains the concept of third party ownership solar firms, where customers pay for solar as a service. Firms maintain ownership of panels, maintain them, install them, and navigate the legal and logistical obstacles of individual renewable energy, while customers pay a contractual fee. Barriers to entry as well as supportive and constricting policies are explained.

The role of public policy in advancement of product service systems

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

O. Mont, T. Lindhqvist

Source: 

The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University

Year: 

2003

PSS companies face a variety of barriers to entry, government policy action can be taken to mitigate these barriers. However, actions taken must ensure that the PSS companies that are supported are environmentally sustainable. To do this, environmental policies should be implemented by governments that indirectly benefit sustainable PSS companies that further sustainable practices. These policies include pricing mechanisms, information dissemination, reductions of transaction costs, support of environmental research efforts, and promotion of case studies. The Swedish EPA successfully...

Philips provides Light as a Service to Schiphol Airport

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Philips Electronics

Source: 

Philips Electronics

Year: 

2015

A press release by Philips announcing a partnership with Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam to provide light as a service. The release claims that the fixtures now being used are more sustainable and energy efficient. The statement explicitly states the partnership as a step towards a more circular economy

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