Product as a service

Development of Guidance on Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Véronique Monier et al.

Source: 

BIO by Deloitte, Arcadis, Ecologic Institute, Institute for European Environmental Policy, Umweltbundesamt

Year: 

2014

"The objective of this study is to describe, compare and analyse different types of EPR (extended producer responsibility) systems operating in the EU in order to identify guiding principles for their functioning." (p. 29)

Growth within: A circular economy vision for a competitive Europe

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Ellen MacArthur et al.

Source: 

Ellen MacArthur Foundation, the McKinsey Center for Business and Environment (sponsered by Stiftungsfonds für Umweltökonomie)

Year: 

2015

This report seeks to answer five questions:

1. Is Europe’s current resource model effective?
2. Will the technology revolution solve Europe’s resource issues?
3. What would a circular economy in Europe look like?
4. What economic outcomes could a circular model achieve in Europe?
5. If Europe decided to shift towards a circular model, how could policy-makers and business leaders accelerate the transition?

Three of Europe’s most resource-intensive basic needs are discussed; food, mobility and the built environment, all together comprising 60% of...

Practice and public-private partnerships in sustainable transport governance: The case of care sharing in Sydney, Australia

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Robyn Dowling, Jennifer Kent

Year: 

2015

"Over the past two decades car sharing has become a mainstream transportation mode for over a million users worldwide with organisations now operating in more than 1100 cities across 26 countries and on five continents. Car sharing has developed alongside significant intellectual currents exploring the attributes and effectiveness of the diverse strands of transport policy. These debates include the efficacy of behaviour change programmes to shift transport practice, the imprints of neoliberalism on transport policy, and the withdrawal of the state as active agent in shaping policy...

Delivering the circular economy - a toolkit for policymakers

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Andrew Morlet et al.

Source: 

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

Year: 

2016

This report wants to provide countries and their policy makers who are interested in a transition to the circular economy with a toolkit. To test this toolkit, a case study was performed for Denmark. It focused on opportunities in several sectors; food and beverage, construction and real estate, machinery, plastic packaging and hospitals. Eight important conclusions were drawn:

• The transition to a circular economy can deliver the expected lasting benefits of a more innovative, resilient and productive economy.
• The circular economy provides many opportunities that are...

Drivers and barriers for shifting towards more service oriented businesses: Analysis of the PSS field and contributions from Sweden

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Oksana Mont

Source: 

The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University

Year: 

2002

The article provides some theoretical definitions of PSS and describes barriers and drivers to engaging in PSS economies.

Mastering Circular Business with the Value Hill

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Circle Economy

Source: 

Circle Economy, Sustainable Finance Lab, Nuovolente, TU Delft

Year: 

2016

This paper targets businesses who aspire to transition to a more circular model. The paper advocates for and describes a circular business model (or rather collection of business models) and tran-sition tool called the Value Hill. The value hill provides businesses with detailed information regarding how to best transition to a circular model as well as nuanced descriptions of best practice options. A key component of the Value hill is Network Organization which is an overarching concept/model/tool that encourages increased efficiency and circularity through collaborative partnerships and...

Circular Economy: Measuring innovation in product chains

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

José Potting, Marko Hekkert, Ernst Worrell, Aldert Hanemaaijer

Source: 

PBL

Year: 

2016

This Dutch study aims to explore how the transition to a circular economy can be measured in the production chain and focuses on asking relevant policy questions for plastic packaging (bottles and other plastic packaging) and electrical devices (washing machines and dryers, and fridges and freezers). However, it does not provide corresponding indicators.

Three types of CE-transitions are identified:
• CE-transitions that place the development of a specific, radical new technology central
• CE-transitions that place socio-economic change central
• CE-transitions...

Circular economy in Europe: Developing the knowledge base

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Almut Reichel, Mieke De Schoenmakere, Jeroen Gillabel

Source: 

EEA

Year: 

2016

This report seeks to help policy makers to better understand the circular economy, by focusing on four of its dimensions; the main enabling factors and transition challenges, indicators for measuring progress and contextual issues. One of the main conclusions regarding the monitoring of progress is that for now the focus is on developments in resource efficiency and waste management, which covers a part, but not the whole, of the circular economy. More data is needed on eco-design, the sharing economy, and repair and reuse. Furthermore, social indicators, industrial symbiosis indicators...

Circular by design: Products in the circular economy

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Mieke De Schoenmakere, Jeroen Gillabel

Source: 

EEA

Year: 

2017

"This report explores the circular economy from a product perspective, applying a systemic approach and transition theory. Drivers of product design and usage are discussed in the context of emerging consumption trends and business models. For governance to be effective, it has to address the product life-cycle and the societal context determining it. Indicators and assessment tools will be needed to fill the current data and knowledge gaps." (p. 6)

2015 Bioenergy Market Report

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Ethan Warner, Kristi Moriarty, John Lewis, Anelia Milbrandt, Amy Schwab

Source: 

US Department of Energy

Year: 

2017

"This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO...

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