More recycling and use of recycled materials

Final Report: Processes for Recovery and Recycling of Chromium From Spent Chromium Oxide Fluorination Catalysts

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Darrell Coons

Source: 

US EPA

Year: 

2000

The purpose of this Phase I project was to develop a process for recovery of chromium from spent chromium(III) oxide fluorination catalysts and similar waste or byproduct streams. The spent catalysts contain 40-64% chromium, primarily in the forms of chromium(III) oxide, Cr2O3, and chromium(III) fluoride, CrF3. They are hazardous solid wastes, for which no known processes for chromium recovery had previously existed. Little has been reported on the chemistry of chromium(III) fluoride. Work in our laboratories has shown that the spent catalysts are extremely inert to chemical attack by...

A Strategy for Material Supply Chain Sustainability: Enabling a Circular Economy in the Electronics Industry through Green Engineering

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Megan P. O'Connor, Julie B. Zimmerman, Paul T. Anastas, and Desiree L. Plata...

Source: 

ACS Sustainable Che. Eng.

Year: 

2016

Rapid innovation in the field of electronic technologies through the use of rare earth and specialty elements (RESE) has made the electronics industry one of the most rapidly evolving industries to date. However, innovations to har-vest these same materials from complex waste streams have not kept pace, thus leading to an unsustainable material supply chain reliant on the mining of increasingly difficult-to-extract ores. Here, we aim to provide a strategy to mitigate these challenges, identifying the technical research and development needed to further sustainable electronics through Green...

Recycling of rare earths: a critical review

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Koen Binnemans, Peter Tom Jones, Bart Blanpain, Tom Van Gerven, Yongxiang Yang, Allan Walton, Matt-hias Buchert

Source: 

Journal of Cleaner Production

Year: 

2013

The rare-earth elements (REEs) are becoming increasingly important in the transition to a green economy, due to their essential role in permanent magnets, lamp phosphors, catalysts, rechargeable batteries etc. With China presently producing more than 90% of the global REE output and its increasingly tight export quota, the rest of the world is confronted with a REE supply risk. Mining companies are now actively seeking new exploitable REE deposits while some old mines are being reopened. Because of the absence of economical and/or operational primary deposits on their territory, many...

Recycling of WEEE's: An economic assessment of present and future e-waste streams

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Federica Cucchiella, Idiano D'Adamo, S.C.Lenny Koh, Paolo Rosa...

Source: 

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Year: 

2015

Waste from Electric and Electronic Equipments (WEEEs) is currently considered to be one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world, with an estimated growth rate going from 3% up to 5% per year. The recycling of Electric or electronic waste (E-waste) products could allow the diminishing use of virgin resources in manufacturing and, consequently, it could contribute in reducing the environmental pollution. Given that EU is trying, since the last two decades, to develop a circular economy based on the exploitation of resources recovered by wastes, a comprehensive framework supporting...

Recycling of metals from urban mines- a strategic evaluation

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Zhi Sun, Yanping Xiao, Hanneke Agterhuis, Jilt Sietsma, Yongxiang Yang

Source: 

Journal of Cleaner Production

Year: 

2015

Urban mining has attracted increasing attention as a research topic, owing to the high growth rate, environmental issues, and market potential of waste generated in urban areas. Metal recovery from such waste has become increasingly important especially in accordance with the concept of metal criticality. This study develops a model by evaluating various types of urban waste in order to understand the criticality of these waste streams and determine their potential for metal recovery. Two factors, i.e. the resource index and technology index, are defined and assessed through a systematic...

Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Komal Habib, Keshav Parajuly, and Henrik Wenzel

Source: 

Environ. Sci. Technol.

Year: 

2015

Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of...

Summary findings and indicator proposals for the life cycle environmental performance, quality and value of EU office and residential buildings

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Nicholas Dodd, Shane Donatello, Miguel Gama-Caldas, Ighor Van de Vyver, Wim Debacker, Marianne Stranger, Carolin Spirinckx, Oriane Dugrosprez, Karen Allacker

Source: 

Year: 

2016

"The European Commission's 2014 Communication on Resource Efficiency Opportunities in the Building Sector identified the need for a common EU framework of indicators for the assessment of the environmental performance of buildings. A study to develop this approach is being taken forward during 2015-2017 by DG ENV and DG GROW, with the technical support of DG JRC-IPTS." (p. 4) This document is a summary of the findings and proposes indicators for the life cycle environmental performance, quality and value of EU office and residential buildings."

Identifying macro-objectives for the life cycle environmental performance and resource efficiency of EU buildings

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Nicholas Dodd, Shane Donatello, Elena Garbarino, Miguel Gama-Caldas

Source: 

JRC

Year: 

2015

"The European Commission's 2014 Communication on Resource Efficiency Opportunities in the Building Sector identified the need for a common EU framework of indicators for the assessment of the environmental performance of buildings. A study to develop this approach is being taken forward during 2015-2017 by DG ENV and DG GROW, with the technical support of DG JRC-IPTS. This working paper brings together the findings of the first stage in this study, which focusesses on the identification of 'macro-objectives' for the environmental performance of the EU buildings stock. This stage is...

VEEP

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

VEEP

Source: 

VEEP

Year: 

2016

Seeks to develop a series of technological solutions to revise the built environment, to cost-effectively lower building energy consumption.

Circulair bouwen

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Sanderine van Odijk and Floor van Bovene

Source: 

Circle Economy, ABN AMRO

Year: 

2014

This report provides an overview of the Dutch construction and demolition sector in relation to the circular economy. To this end it addresses key isssues that arise due to resource-inefficiency and explores what a circular construction and demolition sector could look like. Furthermore, recommendations for the future are presented.

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