Biodiversity

Towards the Circular Economy Vol. 1: an economic and business rationale for an accelerated transition

Type of evidence: 

Source: 

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

Year: 

2012

"Using product case studies and economic-wide analysis, this report details the potential for significant benefits across the EU. It argues that a subset of the EU manufacturing sector could realise net materials cost savings worth up to $ 630 billion p.a. towards 2025 - stimulating economic activity in areas of product development, remanufacturing and refurbishment." (https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/...

Assessment of resource efficiency indicators and targets

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Shailendra Mudgal, Adrian Tan, Sarah Lockwood, Nina Eisenmenger, Marina Fischer-Kowalski, Stefan Giljum, Martin Brucker

Year: 

2012

"This study investigates how indicators and targets of resource use can be applied in policy to increase resource efficiency in the EU. The objective of this study is to identify and assess indicators related to resource use and their environmental impacts and to evaluate the possibility of setting corresponding targets. Ultimately, the study aims to present recommendations for the implementation of indicators and targets in the EU policy context." (p. 19)

Towards the Circular Economy Vol. 2: opportunities for the consumer goods sector

Type of evidence: 

Source: 

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

Year: 

2013

"The report focuses on fast-moving consumer goods, which currently accounts for about 60 per cent of total consumer spending, 35 per cent of material inputs into the economy, and 75 per cent of municipal waste. Importantly, the consumer goods sector absorbs more than 90 per cent of our agricultural output - possibly our most embattled resource in the future." (https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/towards-the-circul...)

Resource Efficiency: Potential and Economic Implications

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Paul Ekins, Nick Hughes et al.

Source: 

International Resource Panel

Year: 

2017

"This report examines the potential for increasing resource efficiency in industrialized countries, including the G7, emerging economies and developing countries. It focuses on the use of natural resources and the environment, including energy, land, water, raw materials: biotic and abiotic, marine and freshwater, oceanic and terrestrial. The evidence base includes the recent and ongoing work of the International Resource Panel, as well as that of a number of international organizations that have addressed this issue. The report also seeks to identify transboundary effects and discusses...

A Circular Economy in the Netherlands by 2050

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

Source: 

Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

Year: 

2016

This program explores the challenges and possibilities for realizing a circular economy by 2050 in the Netherlands. Both current and follow-up steps are identified for this purpose. The following barriers for the transition to a circular economy are mentioned: regulations, the non-internalisation of external effects, the lack of knowledge for technical, social and system innovation, non-circular behaviour of citizens and professionals, adaptation problems in the production chain, consolidated investments and interests, limited influence in the international playing field. The Dutch...

Environmental taxation and EU environmental policies

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Stefan Speck, Susanna Paleari

Source: 

EEA

Year: 

2016

"This report does three things. It provides an overview of market-based instruments (MBIs) established by EU environmental legislation. Then it explains the established definitions and rationales for the application of environmental taxes and discusses their current design and application in EEA member countries. It concludes with overall findings and some reflections on the potential for long-term tax-shifting programmes in the context of policy targets as well as technlogical innovation and demographic changes." (p. 6)

More from less - material resource efficiency in Europe

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Paweł Kaźmierczyk et al.

Source: 

EEA

Year: 

2016

"This report presents an overview of approaches to material resource efficiency and to circular economy in thirty two European countries. It explores similarities and differences in national policy responses, with respect to policy objectives, priority resources and sectors, driving forces, targets and indicators, and the institutional setup. The report also reviews the EU policy framework for resource efficiency and analyses trends in material use and resource productivity between 2000 and 2014. Finally, it includes a number of considerations for the development of future policies on...

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe

Type of evidence: 

Source: 

European Commission

Year: 

2011

Construction accounts for 50% of all extracted material use in the EU. The European Commission calls for a further strengthening of resource efficiency in buildings and construction by considering the lifetime costs of a building rather than just the initial costs and also better infrastructure planning. They have set the 2020 milestone to have the majority of rennovation and constuction standards to be of high efficiency standards.

VSD

Type of evidence: 

"A model that is specifically developed for the application at the European scale is VSD+. This system allows to calculate impacts of (i) air quality parameters, including exposure to NH3 and NOx and deposition of N and acidity and (ii) climatic parameters related to water availability and temperature on ecosystem services […]"

TESS

Type of evidence: 

"TESS (Transactional Environmental Support System) is a decision support tool that aims at assisting policy makers to integrate knowledge from the EU, national, regional and local level into the decision making process."

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