International trade

Urban Biocycles

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Andrew Morlet, Dale Walker, Nick Jeffries, Aurélien Susnjara, Sarah Churchill-Slough, Lena Gravis, Ian Banks

Source: 

Ellen MacArthur Foundation

Year: 

2017

"This scoping paper focuses on the potential of the significant volume of organic waste flowing through the urban environment. The aim is to highlight the opportunities to capture value, in the form of the energy, nutrients and materials embedded in these flows, through the application of circular economy principles. Organic waste - from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste streams and wastewater that flows through sewage systems - is traditionally seen as a costly problem in economic and environmental terms. This scoping paper will explore the idea that the equation can be...

Regulatory barriers for the Circular Economy: Lessons from ten case studies

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Joost van Barneveld et al.

Source: 

Technopolis Group, Fraunhofer ISI, thinkstep, Wuppertal Institute

Year: 

2016

This report takes a look at several circular economy practices and identifies regulatory barriers that obstruct their full potential. Subsequently, recommendations are provided on how to overcome these barriers.

Biofuels in the long-run global energy supply mix for transportation

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Govinda R. Timilsina

Source: 

Philosophical Transaction od the Royal Society A

Year: 

2014

"Various policy instruments along with increasing oil prices have contributed to a sixfold increase in global biofuels production over the last decade (2000–2010). This rapid growth has proved controversial, however, and has raised concerns over potential conflicts with global food security and climate change mitigation. To address these concerns, policy support is now focused on advanced or second-generation biofuels instead of crop-based first-generation biofuels. This policy shift, together with the global financial crisis, has slowed the growth of biofuels production, which has...

Bioenergy: how much can we expect for 2050?

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Helmut Haberl, Karl-Heinz Erb, Fridolin Krausmann, Steve Running, Timothy D Searchinger and W Kolby Smith

Source: 

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS

Year: 

2013

"Estimates of global primary bioenergy potentials in the literature span almost three orders of magnitude. We narrow that range by discussing biophysical constraints on bioenergy potentials resulting from plant growth (NPP) and its current human use. In the last 30 years, terrestrial NPP was almost constant near 54 PgC yr−1, despite massive efforts to increase yields in agriculture and forestry. The global human appropriation of terrestrial plant production has doubled in the last century. We estimate the maximum physical potential of the world's total land area outside croplands,...

Urban biowaste, a sustainable source of bioenergy?

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Mariel Vilella

Source: 

Zero Waste Europe

Year: 

2016

"Although most bioenergy is produced by burning agricultural and forestry biomass, it is also generated by burning the organic parts of municipal solid waste, biowaste or urban biomass. This includes food waste from restaurants, households, farmers markets, gardens, textiles, clothing, paper and other materials of organic origin. But have you ever tried to fuel a bonfire with a salad? Probably not, so this may not be the most efficient use of urban biowaste." (https://www.zerowasteeurope.eu/...

Risks and Opportunities in the Global Phosphate Rock Market

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Marjolein de Ridder, Sijbren de Jong, Joshua Polchar, Stephanie Lingemann

Source: 

HCSS

Year: 

2012

"The report aims primarily to raise awareness within Europe that the EU is almost entirely dependent on imported phosphate rock from the rest of the world and consequently vulnerable to disruptions in the supply of this important commodity. This means that the European food security and agricultural sector are at risk. The report formulates several perspectives for action on how the EU could deal with developments on the phosphate rock market and reduce its vulnerability to potential shocks." (p. 18)

Role, impacts and services provided by European livestock production

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Source: 

Year: 

2016

"Livestock production is a sector of major economic importance that defines many European rural areas. It has become the focus of controversy over the past decade or more, particularly with regard to the environmental impacts it causes. It this context, it seemed useful to support this debate with a critical review of the state of scientific knowledge on the role, impacts, and services - environmental, economic, and social - associated with the European livestock production. Accordingly, the French ministries responsible for Agriculture and the Environment, in cooperation with the French...

Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: The case of Europe

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Paul J.A. Withers et al.

Source: 

Year: 

2015

"The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe’s...

The Service Economy

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

OECD

Source: 

OECD

Year: 

2000

The report outlines the changes of the economies of OECD countries to become more service oriented. Because the article was published in 2000 it lacks the specificity to discuss PaS in depth, but is useful in general discussions of service oriented economies.

FUDIPO

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Erik Dahlquist

Source: 

European Commission

Year: 

2017

"FUDIPO is a project funded by the European Commission under the H2020 programme, SPIRE-02-2016 topic: "Plant-wide monitoring and control of data-intensive processes". To face this topic, FUDIPO will develop and test an integrated set of methods combining mathematical modelling and simulation with experiments in pilot and full-scale facilities. This will take place within a strong consortium of industries (also SMEs), the main users of the developed toolbox, suppliers (also SMEs) that will focus primarily on developing the tools and academic partners deepening the underlying theory (...

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