International trade

A Circular Economy in the Netherlands by 2050

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

Source: 

Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

Year: 

2016

This program explores the challenges and possibilities for realizing a circular economy by 2050 in the Netherlands. Both current and follow-up steps are identified for this purpose. The following barriers for the transition to a circular economy are mentioned: regulations, the non-internalisation of external effects, the lack of knowledge for technical, social and system innovation, non-circular behaviour of citizens and professionals, adaptation problems in the production chain, consolidated investments and interests, limited influence in the international playing field. The Dutch...

More from less - material resource efficiency in Europe

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Paweł Kaźmierczyk et al.

Source: 

EEA

Year: 

2016

"This report presents an overview of approaches to material resource efficiency and to circular economy in thirty two European countries. It explores similarities and differences in national policy responses, with respect to policy objectives, priority resources and sectors, driving forces, targets and indicators, and the institutional setup. The report also reviews the EU policy framework for resource efficiency and analyses trends in material use and resource productivity between 2000 and 2014. Finally, it includes a number of considerations for the development of future policies on...

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe

Type of evidence: 

Source: 

European Commission

Year: 

2011

Construction accounts for 50% of all extracted material use in the EU. The European Commission calls for a further strengthening of resource efficiency in buildings and construction by considering the lifetime costs of a building rather than just the initial costs and also better infrastructure planning. They have set the 2020 milestone to have the majority of rennovation and constuction standards to be of high efficiency standards.

The Circular Economy: A review of definitions, processes and impacts

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Vasileios Rizos, Katja Tuokko, Arno Behrens

Source: 

CEPS

Year: 

2017

Transforming the linear economy, which has remained the dominant model since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, into a circular one is by no means an easy task. Such a radical change entails a major transformation of our current production and consumption patterns, which in turn will have a significant impact on the economy, the environment and society. Understanding these impacts is crucial for researchers as well as for policy-makers engaged in designing future policies in the field. This requires developing an in-depth knowledge of the concept of the circular economy, its processes...

Circular economy: a commentary from the perspectives of the natural and social sciences

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

European Academies Science Advisory Council

Source: 

EASAC

Year: 

2015

This commentary by the EASAC primarily examines the proposed benefits and potential enabling policies of the circular economy. A broad range of sources is used to recognize gaps and inadequacies in proposed benefits and policies in order to foster a substantial discussion among stakeholders as to how to proceed in the transition process. The study also examines barriers and indicators and comments on their nature and efficacy respectively. Furthermore, the commentary provides advice regarding avoidance of barriers and the use of proper indicators.

WATSIM

Type of evidence: 

"WATSIM is world trade model for agricultural commodities. It currently covers twelve regions, including the EU, and 29 commodities. The model integrates different types of trade policies, such as tariffs and quotas, safeguards and export subsidies."

WITCH

Type of evidence: 

Source: 

LIAISE

"WITCH is a Regional Integrated Assessment Hard-Link Hybrid Model. Its top down component consists of an intertemporal optimal growth model in which the energy input of the aggregate production function has been expanded to give a bottom-up like description of the energy sector."

SUSMETRO

Type of evidence: 

"The SUSMETRO Impact Assessment tool provides information on the expected effects of spatial planning with regard to the self-supportive capacities of the region (ecological footprint) and the share of recreational and nature conservation facilities (land uses functions), offering cost-benefit calculations regarding the expected economic revenues."

PACE

Type of evidence: 

"PACE is a flexible system of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models which integrates the areas of economy, energy, and the environment. The generic core of PACE is a standard multi-sector, multi-region CGE framework of global trade and energy use designated to assess major policy initiatives in a world that is increasingly integrated through trade."

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