International trade

Circular economy in Europe: Developing the knowledge base

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Almut Reichel, Mieke De Schoenmakere, Jeroen Gillabel

Source: 

EEA

Year: 

2016

This report seeks to help policy makers to better understand the circular economy, by focusing on four of its dimensions; the main enabling factors and transition challenges, indicators for measuring progress and contextual issues. One of the main conclusions regarding the monitoring of progress is that for now the focus is on developments in resource efficiency and waste management, which covers a part, but not the whole, of the circular economy. More data is needed on eco-design, the sharing economy, and repair and reuse. Furthermore, social indicators, industrial symbiosis indicators...

Ensuring bioenergy comes clean in the Clean Energy Package

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Sini Eräjää, Hanna Aho, Laura Buffet

Source: 

BirdLife Europe, Fern, Transport & Environment

Year: 

2017

"European climate and energy policies are built on the myth that all bioenergy - being a renewable energy source - is good for the climate and good for the environment. As the use of bioenergy in the EU is expected to more than double by 2020 compared to 2005, it's becoming clear that bioenergy is not the clean dream we all hoped it would be. In some cases it can even increase CO2 emissions (compared to fossil fuels) and in numerous instances it threatens nature by putting additional pressure on already burdened agricultural land and forests. As the demand for bioenergy grows (pushed by...

German Resource Efficiency Programme (ProgRess) - programme for the sustainable use of natural resources

Type of evidence: 

Source: 

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety

Year: 

2012

"The current use of natural resources is already far exceeding the Earth’s regenerative capacity. A responsible and efficient use of natural resources will therefore be a key competence for any society seeking to ensure its future viability. Improving resource efficiency can limit environmental damage, strengthen the competitiveness of the German economy, create new jobs and secure long-term employment. Therefore, on 29 February 2012, the Federal Cabinet adopted the German Resource Efficiency Programme (ProgRess). With this, the German government implemented the decision in its Raw...

CarbonNext

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Dennis Krämer, Katy Armstrong, Hans Bolscher

Source: 

H2020

Year: 

2016

"CarbonNext is a Horizon2020 project funded by the European Commission to investigate the opportunities for alternative carbon feedstocks as we move away from using fossil fuels as the main source. We need to find new sources of carbon for industrial process if we are to create a sustainable chemical process industry in Europe that reduces its carbon dioxide emissions. CarbonNext's objective is to evaluate the potential of new carbon sources in Europe. It will pri-marily focus on new sources of carbon to be used as a feedstock and secondarily the impact this will have on on energy...

2015 Bioenergy Market Report

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Ethan Warner, Kristi Moriarty, John Lewis, Anelia Milbrandt, Amy Schwab

Source: 

US Department of Energy

Year: 

2017

"This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO...

Study on modelling of the economic and environmental impacts of raw material consumption

Type of evidence: 

Source: 

Cambridge Econometrics, Bio Intelligence Sevices

Year: 

2014

"This report provides a quantative analysis of different resource productivity (RP) targets for the EU. Resource productivity in this study is defined as GDP per unit of raw material consumption (RMC), instead of the usual GDP per unit of domestic material consumption (DMC). The RMC-based indicator adjusts the weight of materials recorded at border crossings so that they are counted as if they were produced domestically." (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/enveco/resource_efficiency/pdf/RMC.pdf)

Priorities for critical materials for a circular economy

Type of evidence: 

Source: 

EASAC

Year: 

2016

"This report reviews briefly the historical criteria for critical raw materials currently under review by the Commission and the Joint Research Centre (JRC), and notes that many critical materials still have very low recycling rates which increases the demand for virgin materials and therefore reduces lifetime of supply. EASAC is in broad agreement with the criteria that the Commission proposes to apply in selecting critical materials for the new list in 2017 but notes that environmental impacts of extraction of raw materials are substantial and should be considered in the criticality...

Resource Efficiency: Potential and Economic Implications

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Paul Ekins, Nick Hughes et al.

Source: 

International Resource Panel

Year: 

2017

"This report examines the potential for increasing resource efficiency in industrialized countries, including the G7, emerging economies and developing countries. It focuses on the use of natural resources and the environment, including energy, land, water, raw materials: biotic and abiotic, marine and freshwater, oceanic and terrestrial. The evidence base includes the recent and ongoing work of the International Resource Panel, as well as that of a number of international organizations that have addressed this issue. The report also seeks to identify transboundary effects and discusses...

The Circular Economy and Benefits for Society

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Anders Wijkman, Kristian Skånberg

Source: 

Club of Rome, MAVA Foundation

Year: 

2015

"The main purpose of this report is to broadly explore the potential for a significant increase in resource efficiency and to specifically assess what the main benefits for society would be looking at carbon emissions and employment in particular. We are using the Dutch, Finnish, French, Spanish and Swedish economies as test cases." (p. 5)

Opportunities for a circular economy in the Netherlands

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Ton Bastein, Elsbeth Roelofs, Elmer Rietveld, Alwin Hoogendoorn

Source: 

TNO

Year: 

2013

"This report analyses the opportunities and obstacles that will present themselves as the Netherlands moves towards a more circular economy. It proposes a number of actions that can be taken, particularly by the government, to accelerate this process." (https://www.government.nl/documents/reports/2013/10/04/opportunities-for...)

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