Type of evidence: 

"The MARKAL family of models can generate sustainable energy production scenarios at a given spatial background (national, regional, province, community) in Europe and the rest of the world over a period of 40 to 50 years. MARKAL relies on a consistent energy-technology database and projections for energy demand and resource costs to create scenarios that minimize energy-system costs depending on abatement policies."


Type of evidence: 

"LEAP is a software tool for energy policy analysis and climate change mitigation assessment developed at the Stockholm Environment Institute. LEAP has been adopted by hundreds of organizations in more than 150 countries worldwide."


Type of evidence: 

"The IIASA/VID educational attainment model was used in the reconstruction of educational attainment distributions by age and sex from 1970 to 2000 and projections through alternative scenarios to 2050."


Type of evidence: 

"EUROMOD is a tax-benefit model, initially covering the EU15. In 2005, under the FP6 Research Infrastructures Action as a Design Study the model was expanded to cover four of the EU10 countries and look at the feasibility of the other six. The model is mainly used for: estimating the distributional impacts of changes in personal tax and transfer policy; evaluation of efficiency-equity trade-off in different types of welfare reform; comparison of different fiscal policies at a European level."


Type of evidence: 

"EUFASOM is a model constructed for the European Agricultural sectors and can be used to analyse changing policies, technologies, resources and markets. The model focuses only on the forestry sectors, while the rest of the economy is taken as given (exogenous). […] The model is mainly used to; forecast production quantities, including agriculture and forest harvests and land-use transfers; forecast equilibrium prices and trade for all products and regions included in the model."


Type of evidence: 



"E3MG is a sectoral econometric model for 20 world regions that has been developed with the intention of analyzing long-term energy and environment interactions with the global economy and assessing short and long-term impacts. The model consists of an in-depth treatment of changes in the input-output structure of the economy over the forecast period and incorporates the effects of technological change, relative price movements and changes in the composition of each industry’s output."


Type of evidence: 

"MITERRA-EUROPE is a deterministic and static model which calculates N and phosphorus (P) balances, emissions of NH3, N2O, NOx and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, and leaching of N to ground water and surface waters. The model was developed to assess the effects and interactions of policies and measures in agriculture, including structural measures, on those fluxes."


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