Scientific articles

Barriers to the Circular Economy: Evidence From the European Union (EU)

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Julian Kirchherr, Laura Piscelli, Ruben Bour, Erica Kostense-Smit, Jennifer Muller, Anne Huibrechtse-Truijens, Marko Hekkert

Source: 

Utrecht University, Deloitte

Year: 

2018

"The circular economy concept is much discussed in the European Union (EU), but only limited progress has been accomplished so far regarding its implementation. Most scholarly studies blame this on various technological barriers. Our work rebuts these studies. We present the first large-N-study on circular economy barriers in the EU (208 survey respondents, 47 expert interviews). We find that cultural barriers, particularly a lack of consumer interest and awareness as well as a hesitant company culture, are considered the main circular economy barriers by businesses and policy-makers....

Cooperation fostering industrial symbiosis market potential, good practice and policy actions

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Teresa Domenech, Asel Doranova, Matthew Smith

Source: 

Technopolis, UCL, International Synergies, Trinomics

Year: 

2018

This study aims to answer three main research tasks:

- Identify key succes factors as wel as issues hindering the development of industrial symbiosis
- Assess policy actions that support industrial symbiosis at different levels
- Assess the feasibility and options of EU-level interventions to contribute to scaling up and promoting IS initiatives across Europe or an EU-level trading platform for secondary raw materials (p. 10)

Circular Economy Policies and Strategies of Germany

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Oliver Lah

Source: 

Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy

Year: 

2016

"Germany had an early start on its pathway towards a more efficient and sustainable growth. During the last decades, it developed ambitious energy, industrial, and environmental policies at the national level and played a very strong role in these areas at the European level. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the country’s strong  environmental  framework  makes  Germany  a  pioneer  in  sustainable development, which shows that a more efficient and low-carbon economy is compatible with growth (OECD, 2012). Germany’s National Strategy for...

Environmental evaluation of concrete made from recycled concrete aggregate implementing Life Cycle Assessment

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Nicolas Serres, Sandrine Braymand, Françoise Feugeas

Year: 

2016

"Recycled concrete aggregates from demolition constitute one of the largest waste streams within the developed countries. These study aims to quantify environmental impacts associated with mixing compositions of concrete made of waste materials by using LCA. Environmental performances of natural, recycled and mixed 20-mm concrete samples, formulated with the same mechanical strength regarding the functional unit, were evaluated. Eight millimeter concrete samples, formulated with natural or recycled (concrete or terracotta brick) aggregates - with the same volume composition of the granular...

Phosphorus Recycling from Manure - A Case Study on the Circular Economy

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Marie-José Smits, Geert Woltjer

Source: 

Wageningen University and Research

Year: 

2018

In this case study paper, phosphorus recycling from manure is discussed, with a special focus on the recycling process developed by the BioEcoSIM consortium. We analysed phosphorus flows globally, at a European level and on a national level, with a focus on the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, as in some other regions in Western Europe, there is excess supply of manure due to intensive livestock production. The oversupply, combined with legislation, generates a negative manure price. This negative manure price creates the business case for BioEcoSIM and other manure processing techniques....

Practice and public-private partnerships in sustainable transport governance: The case of care sharing in Sydney, Australia

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Robyn Dowling, Jennifer Kent

Year: 

2015

"Over the past two decades car sharing has become a mainstream transportation mode for over a million users worldwide with organisations now operating in more than 1100 cities across 26 countries and on five continents. Car sharing has developed alongside significant intellectual currents exploring the attributes and effectiveness of the diverse strands of transport policy. These debates include the efficacy of behaviour change programmes to shift transport practice, the imprints of neoliberalism on transport policy, and the withdrawal of the state as active agent in shaping policy...

Industrial Symbiosis in Kalundborg, Denmark: A Quantative Assessment of Economic and Environmental Aspects

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Noel Brings Jacobsen

Year: 

2006

"As a subdiscipline of industrial ecology, industrial symbiosis is concerned with resource optimization among colocated companies. The industrial symbiosis complex in Kalundborg, Denmark is the seminal example of industrial symbiosis in the industrial ecology literature. In spite of this, there has been no in-depth quantitative analysis enabling more comprehensive understanding of economic and environmental performances connected to this case. In this article some of the central industrial symbiotic exchanges, involving water and steam, in Kalundborg are analyzed, using detailed economic...

Drivers and barriers for shifting towards more service oriented businesses: Analysis of the PSS field and contributions from Sweden

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Oksana Mont

Source: 

The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University

Year: 

2002

The article provides some theoretical definitions of PSS and describes barriers and drivers to engaging in PSS economies.

Mastering Circular Business with the Value Hill

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Circle Economy

Source: 

Circle Economy, Sustainable Finance Lab, Nuovolente, TU Delft

Year: 

2016

This paper targets businesses who aspire to transition to a more circular model. The paper advocates for and describes a circular business model (or rather collection of business models) and tran-sition tool called the Value Hill. The value hill provides businesses with detailed information regarding how to best transition to a circular model as well as nuanced descriptions of best practice options. A key component of the Value hill is Network Organization which is an overarching concept/model/tool that encourages increased efficiency and circularity through collaborative partnerships and...

Growth within: A circular economy vision for a competitive Europe

Type of evidence: 

Author names: 

Ellen MacArthur et al.

Source: 

Ellen MacArthur Foundation, the McKinsey Center for Business and Environment (sponsered by Stiftungsfonds für Umweltökonomie)

Year: 

2015

This report seeks to answer five questions:

1. Is Europe’s current resource model effective?
2. Will the technology revolution solve Europe’s resource issues?
3. What would a circular economy in Europe look like?
4. What economic outcomes could a circular model achieve in Europe?
5. If Europe decided to shift towards a circular model, how could policy-makers and business leaders accelerate the transition?

Three of Europe’s most resource-intensive basic needs are discussed; food, mobility and the built environment, all together comprising 60% of...

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