Library

The library contains a wealth of information on the circular economy for use by policy makers and analysts conducting impact assessments. For more information on impact assessments and the EU's Better Regulation Agenda, please click here.

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    The opportunities to business of improving resource efficiency

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Bio Intelligence Service, AMEC

    Year: 

    2013

    "This study forms part of the Commission's on-going analysis of the opportunities to be gained from improving resource efficiency and how best to help business realise the potential economic, as well as environmental and social benefit." (Executive Summary)

    Assessment of resource efficiency indicators and targets

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Shailendra Mudgal, Adrian Tan, Sarah Lockwood, Nina Eisenmenger, Marina Fischer-Kowalski, Stefan Giljum, Martin Brucker

    Year: 

    2012

    "This study investigates how indicators and targets of resource use can be applied in policy to increase resource efficiency in the EU. The objective of this study is to identify and assess indicators related to resource use and their environmental impacts and to evaluate the possibility of setting corresponding targets. Ultimately, the study aims to present recommendations for the implementation of indicators and targets in the EU policy context." (p. 19)

    The Role of Additive Manufacturing in Improving Resource Efficiency and Sustainability

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Mélanie Despeisse, Simon Ford

    Year: 

    2015

    "Additive manufacturing is heralded as a revolutionary process technology. While it has yet to cause a dramatic transformation of the manufacturing system, there are early signs of how the characteristics of this novel production process can improve resource efficiency and other sustainability aspects. In this paper, we draw on examples from a wide range of products and industries to understand the role of additive manufacturing in sustainable industrial systems. We identify four main areas in which the adoption of additive manufacturing is leading to improved resource efficiency: (1)...

    Achieving carbon emission reduction through industrial & urban symbiosis

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Huijuan Dong, Satoshi Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Yong Geng, Minoru Fujii, Liang Dong

    Year: 

    2014

    "Industry and fossil fuel combustion are the main sources for urban carbon emissions. Most studies focus on energy consumption emission reduction and energy efficiency improvement. Material saving is also important for carbon emission reduction from a lifecycle perspective. IS (Industrial symbiosis) and UrS (urban symbiosis) have been effective since both of them encourage byproduct exchange. However, quantitative carbon emission reduction evaluation on applying them is still lacking. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to fill such a gap through a case study in Kawasaki Eco-town,...

    Industrial Symbiosis in Kalundborg, Denmark: A Quantative Assessment of Economic and Environmental Aspects

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Noel Brings Jacobsen

    Year: 

    2006

    "As a subdiscipline of industrial ecology, industrial symbiosis is concerned with resource optimization among colocated companies. The industrial symbiosis complex in Kalundborg, Denmark is the seminal example of industrial symbiosis in the industrial ecology literature. In spite of this, there has been no in-depth quantitative analysis enabling more comprehensive understanding of economic and environmental performances connected to this case. In this article some of the central industrial symbiotic exchanges, involving water and steam, in Kalundborg are analyzed, using detailed economic...

    A reflection on the Dutch Sustainable Public Procurement Programme

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Frans Melissen, Harry Reinders

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2012

    "Public procurement can contribute significantly to achieving sustainable
    development. The Dutch government has indicated that sustainable procurement
    is one of its priorities and has developed and installed a Sustainable Public
    Procurement Programme (SPPP). This essay reviews the current programme and
    assesses its actual contribution to sustainable development. Specific questions are
    raised with respect to both the set up and the content of the current decision
    criteria for supplier selection and contract provisions. This article argues that, so...

    Closing the eco-innovation gap - an economic opportunity for business

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Meghan O'Brien et al...

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2012

    "This report focuses on the economic benefits from eco-innovation. It builds on the last EIO Annual Report, The Eco-Innovation Challenge: Pathways to a Resource-Efficient Europe (EIO 2011a), which made an environmental case for expanding and intensifying eco-innovation activities across the EU. We consider eco-innovation to be a chance for economic and environmental agendas to walk hand in hand. This report argues that eco-innovation in European companies is key to achieving systematic change of entire economies. This implies both reduced absolute consumption of natural resources and...

    Smart Procurement. Going green: best practices for green procurement

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    OECD

    Year: 

    2015

    This document provides an overview of best practices from a variety of countries in relation to sustainable procurement. Topics include the legal and policy framework, understanding market capacity and assessing costs, introducing environmental standards, professionalising, monitoring and raising awareness.

    DISIRE

    Type of evidence: 

    Year: 

    2015

    The goal of the DISIRE project '[…] is to evolve the existing processes by advancing the Sustainable Process Industry through an overall Resource and Energy efficiency by the technological breakthroughs and concepts of the DISIRE technological platform in the field of Industrial Process Control (IPC).'

    Lead Action 21: Environmental and social responsibility for the 21st century

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    International Lead Assocation

    Year: 

    2015

    Lead enjoys one of the highest recycling rates of all materials in common use today. This is a result of its fundamental properties, good design and the ways in which it is used, which make lead-based products easily identifiable and economic to collect and recycle. As a result, over half of the lead produced and used each year throughout the world has been used before in other products. What is more, because lead is a naturally occurring element, the quality of the recycled lead is identical to that of primary metal from mining. The use of lead has evolved over the years, with a...

    Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    The High Level Panel Experts on Food Security and Nutrition

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2014

    "The issue of global food losses and waste has recently received much attention and has been given high visibility. According to FAO, almost one-third of food produced for human consumption – approximately 1.3 billion tonnes per year – is either lost or wasted globally: their reduction is now presented as essential to improve food security and to reduce the environmental footprint of food systems. In this context, the Committee on World Food Security (CFS), in its Thirty-ninth Session (October 2012) requested the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) to...

    Enabling closed resource loops in electronics: understanding consumer disposal behaviour using insights from diffusion models

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Deepali Sinha Khetriwal, Ivana First

    Year: 

    2012

    "The paper explores consumer disposal behaviour, especially in the context of durable electronic products. The purpose of the research is to understand why, how and when consumers dispose of their durable products. The research aims to provide policy makers, waste managers and product marketers new insights on consumer disposal behaviour that will help improve policy, encourage better resource management and incentivise product designs that maximise environmental and social benefits. We apply knowledge from the extensive literature on diffusion modelling to develop and test our hypothesis...

    The Circular Economy: A Wealth of Flows - 2nd Edition

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Ken Webster

    Year: 

    2017

    "Since the first edition of this volume published in 2015, the global economy has remained relatively subdued and pressure on resources, especially in terms of waste and carbon emissions, continues. More than ever, the circular economy gives the direction of travel, and appears as a model for economic prosperity. This revised volume contains one entirely new chapter, expanding on the role of digital; on how we see the world; how the economy really works and how we can act within it. The other major revision is in rewriting the final chapter, as it becomes obvious, argues the author, that...

    Achieving 'Growth Within'

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Jocelyn Blériot et al.

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation, SYSTEMIQ

    Year: 

    2017

    "An additional €320 billion of circular economy investment opportunities is available to investors in the European Union (EU) until 2025 that can be unlocked through modest action by policy makers or industry. This investment would put the EU on the path to seize the economic, societal, and environmental benefits of the transition to a circular economy and mitigate the mounting risks that reside in conventional industrial assets in an era of rapid change." (p. 10)

    Intelligent Assets: Unlocking the circular economy potential

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    World Economic Forum, Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2016

    "This report illustrates opportunities for innovation and creativity across a spectrum of
    industries and sectors: it looks at how we manufacture and use electronics and advanced
    equipment, how we create our energy infrastructure, how we build and transform our
    buildings, and how we produce food. It assesses how smart cities might evolve to become
    a focal point for the transitions to follow. There are profit opportunities for companies to
    play for but perhaps more importantly, there’s an opportunity for society to redefine its
    relationship with resources...

    A New Dynamic: effective business in a circular economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Amory Lovins, Michael Braungart

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2014

    "A New Dynamic makes the contemporary case for a profound shift from throughput to ‘roundput’, from ownership to access. The circular economy is enabled by disruptive information technology and the design of materials and products to flow in effective cycles and at high quality – ‘made to be made again’. The size of the prize is in the billions of dollars of materials cost savings per year. This volume contains contributions on understanding the model, business case studies, the performance economy, history and development and the entrepreneurial opportunities of these fluid times." (...

    A New Dynamic 2: Effective systems in a circular economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Brett Bridgeland, Ellen Franconi, Ken Webster

    Year: 

    2016

    "The second book of the series A New Dynamic reflects on the necessity to develop a whole-system approach to re-think our economy. This edition brings together thought leaders who can see beyond the boundaries of their respective areas of expertise, and establish the necessary connections to re-think our current development path. This portfolio of 11 articles, spanning a variety of fields including architecture, agriculture, design, business and engineering, provides both analytical and action-orientated insights that point towards a new regenerative framework for economic prosperity." (...

    The New Plastics Economy: Catalysing action

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    Year: 

    2017

    "Launched at the World Economic Forum's Annual Meeting in Davos in January 2017, this new research presents three strategies to increase reuse and recycling of plastic packaging to 70%, from today's recycling rate of just 14%. The report provides a clear action plan, endorsed by over 40 industry leaders, for the global plastics industry to design better packaging, increase recycling rates, and introduce new models for making better use of packaging." (https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation....

    The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    World Economic Forum, Ellen MacArthur Foundation, McKinsey & Company

    Source: 

    Year: 

    2016

    "The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics provides, for the first time, a vision of a global economy in which plastics never become waste, and outlines concrete steps towards achieving the systematic shift needed." (https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/the-new-plastics-e...)

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