Library

The library contains a wealth of information on the circular economy for use by policy makers and analysts conducting impact assessments. For more information on impact assessments and the EU's Better Regulation Agenda, please click here.

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    Phosphorus recycling from the waste sector

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    F.J. de Ruijter, W. van Dijk, J.C. van Middelkoop, H. van Reuler

    Source: 

    Wageningen University and Research

    Year: 

    2015

    This study was financed by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and is one of the projects on the Dutch phosphorus balance that have been carried out since 2005. One of the major results is the phosphorus flow model for the Netherlands that was used to describe phosphorus flows in 2005, 2008 and 2011. The results are described in a scientific paper:

    Smit, A.L., Van Middelkoop, J.C., Van Dijk, W., Van Reuler, H., 2015. A substance flow analysis of phosphorus in the food production, processing and consumption system of the Netherlands. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 103: 1-13.

    The...

    Phosphorus Recycling from Manure - A Case Study on the Circular Economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Marie-José Smits, Geert Woltjer

    Source: 

    Wageningen University and Research

    Year: 

    2018

    In this case study paper, phosphorus recycling from manure is discussed, with a special focus on the recycling process developed by the BioEcoSIM consortium. We analysed phosphorus flows globally, at a European level and on a national level, with a focus on the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, as in some other regions in Western Europe, there is excess supply of manure due to intensive livestock production. The oversupply, combined with legislation, generates a negative manure price. This negative manure price creates the business case for BioEcoSIM and other manure processing techniques....

    Electric vehicles in Europe

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    EEA

    Year: 

    2016

    "This report provides a non-technical summary of the latest information on electric road vehicles in Europe, including those with hybrid technologies. It focuses upon electric passenger vehicles, explaining the different types that are now available on the market, how each type works, and their respective advantages and disadvantages. The report also outlines how many countries in Europe are presently using incentives to encourage the further uptake of electric passenger vehicles, and it identifies the main barriers restricting their broader use. The latest information on electric...

    Circular Economy Mapping Week

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Circular Economy Club

    Year: 

    2018

    "CEC is thrilled by the participation, knowledge and network built through the Circular Economy Mapping Week held in over 65 cities worldwide during this past week [5th – 11th February 2018]. During this week, CEC Organizers voluntarily set up group sessions to map the circular initiatives in their cities. Workshops took place in 65+ cities, including Bangkok, Buenos Aires, Cape Town, Madrid, Montreal, New York, London, São Paulo, Singapore and Taipei.

    The CEC Mapping Week had two objectives:

    1. To bring together circular enthusiasts to discuss and learn
    2. ...

    Recycling Concrete

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    The Cement Sustainability Initiative

    Year: 

    2009

    "In its report “Recycling Concrete” the CSI argues that the recycling of concrete can reduce natural resource exploitation and waste going to landfill. The report asks for an ultimate goal of “zero landfill” of concrete. The recovery of concrete falls between standard definitions of reuse and recycling: concrete is broken down into aggregates (granular material), generally to be used in road works, but also as aggregates in new concrete. Recovering concrete has two main advantages: it reduces the use of new virgin aggregate and the associated environmental costs of exploitation and...

    Workshop "Improving management of construction and demolition waste"

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    BIO by Deloitte et al.

    Year: 

    2016

    "This background paper was prepared in the context of the stakeholders’ workshop that will be held the 25 May 2016 at the premises of the European Commission in Brussels, in the framework of the project ‘Resource efficient use of mixed waste’. The purpose of this background paper is to:

    Introduce the seminar on “Improving management of construction and demolition waste”

    • Objectives
    • Programme
    • Practical details

    Present the study “Resource efficient use of mixed waste”

    • Objectives
    • Content
    • Performance of the Member
    • ...

    End of Waste criteria for inert aggregates in member states

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    ECN

    Year: 

    2017

    "The objective of this report is to study the consistency of the EoW criteria among different European countries. In the Netherlands there is one regulation with EoW criteria, specifically for construction and demolition waste. Comparable regulations for inert aggregates are available for the United Kingdom, France and Austria. These EoW criteria for construction and demolition waste (inert aggregates) among the four countries the Netherlands, United Kingdom, France and Austria are compared in this report. An overview of other EU and national EoW regulations is given. The consequences for...

    Environmental evaluation of concrete made from recycled concrete aggregate implementing Life Cycle Assessment

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Nicolas Serres, Sandrine Braymand, Françoise Feugeas

    Year: 

    2016

    "Recycled concrete aggregates from demolition constitute one of the largest waste streams within the developed countries. These study aims to quantify environmental impacts associated with mixing compositions of concrete made of waste materials by using LCA. Environmental performances of natural, recycled and mixed 20-mm concrete samples, formulated with the same mechanical strength regarding the functional unit, were evaluated. Eight millimeter concrete samples, formulated with natural or recycled (concrete or terracotta brick) aggregates - with the same volume composition of the granular...

    Impacts of Biofuels and Renewable Energy - Data Collection Report

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Ecologic Institute

    Year: 

    2018

    This report aims at providing an overview of possible macroeconomic and other impacts that increasing the share of biofuels and other renewable-energy sources could have. Since several studies have been conducted on these topics already, the project team’s work for this report took the form of desk research (as opposed to the case-study work done for other topic areas within CIRCULAR IMPACTS). The project team identified relevant studies in recent literature and collected their key findings into an integrated overview. Due to the importance of biological energy sources both in the EU...

    From waste to resource productivity - Report of the Government Chief Scientific Adviser

    Type of evidence: 

    Year: 

    2017

    "This report is presented in two parts: The first is the summary report of the Government Chief Scientific Adviser. This was developed as a result of seminars and the advice of the experts who provided the source of the evidence. The second part, the evidence, has been gathered from and written by a distinguished group of experts. The evidence takes two forms: chapters that consider a major aspect of the waste and resource productivity landscape; and individual case studies that illuminate points of detail and principle. The evidence section provides the views of the experts themselves,...

    Germany on the Road to a Circular Economy?

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Henning Wilts

    Source: 

    Wuppertal Institute

    Year: 

    2016

    "Germany is world champion when it comes to its recycling rate - but it's still a long way to a circular economy, says Henning Wilts from the Wuppertal Institute, who has analysed the status quo of the circular economy in Germany for the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES). Its development is not only justified from the point of view of climate and environmental policies but it is also on economic-political grounds an integrated part of a resource efficiency strategy." (https://wupperinst.org/en/a/wi/a/s/ad/3551/)

    London's Circular Economy Route Map

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    London Waste and Recycling Board

    Year: 

    2017

    "The London circular economy route map outlines a vision of a capital city thriving through the adoption of the principles of circular economy: an economy which keeps products, components and materials at their highest use and value at all times." (https://circulareconomy.europa.eu/platform/en/strategies)

    Circular Economy Policies and Strategies of Germany

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Oliver Lah

    Source: 

    Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy

    Year: 

    2016

    "Germany had an early start on its pathway towards a more efficient and sustainable growth. During the last decades, it developed ambitious energy, industrial, and environmental policies at the national level and played a very strong role in these areas at the European level. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the country’s strong  environmental  framework  makes  Germany  a  pioneer  in  sustainable development, which shows that a more efficient and low-carbon economy is compatible with growth (OECD, 2012). Germany’s National Strategy for...

    Circular Flanders - Together towards a circular economy

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Circular Flanders

    Year: 

    2017

    "Circular Flanders is the hub and the inspiration for the Flemish circular economy. It is a partnership of governments, companies, civil society, and the knowledge community that will take action together. These organisations are the core of our partnership. Each one has committed to carrying out a specific action." (https://circulareconomy.europa.eu/platform/sites/default/files/kick-off_...)

    German Resource Efficiency Programme II: Programme for the sustainable use and conservation of natural resources

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety

    Year: 

    2016

    "Natural resources are defined as all components of nature: biotic and abiotic resources, physical space (such as land), environmental media (water, soil and air), flow resources (such as geothermal, wind, tide and solar energy), and the diversity of all living organisms. Natural resources are essential for life on our planet, and always will be. Many natural resources, however, are in limited supply. Conserving natural resources is therefore of vital importance, including for future generations. The Federal Government embraces its responsibility in this regard. As early as 2002, it set a...

    Leading the transition - Action plan for circular economy in Portugal (2017-2020)

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Ministry of Environment, Portugal

    Year: 

    2017

    ""Leading the transition: a circular economy action plan for Portugal" was recently adopted by the portuguese Council of Ministers in december 11th 2017, published in the Journal of the Portuguese Government." (https://circulareconomy.europa.eu/platform/en/strategies)

    Towards a Model of Circular Economy for Italy - Overview and Strategic Framework

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Italian Ministry of Economic Development and Ministry of Environment, Land & Sea

    Year: 

    2017

    "“Towards a Model of Circular Economy for Italy - Overview and Strategic Framework” is a document that defines Italy’s strategic positioning on the issue in line with the commitments adopted under the Paris Agreement, UN Agenda 2030, G7 Communiqué and within EU. The document calls for a "change of paradigm" for Italy's economy, for a new way to consume, produce and do business. There is a need for a new industrial policy aimed at sustainability and innovation capable of increasing the competitiveness of products and manufacturing. Considering the importance of the document, the Italian...

    Leading the cycle - Finnish road map to a circular economy 2016-2025

    Type of evidence: 

    Source: 

    Sitra

    Year: 

    2016

    "The Finnish Roadmap to achieve a Circular Economy goal is to create a shared mindset in Finnish society to promote the circular economy and determine the most effective means to do it. The Roadmap focuses on 5 focus areas, topics that will initially be used in advancing the circular economy in Finland. Based on Finland’s traditional strengths, these topics include a sustainable food system, forest-based loops, technical loops, transport and logistics, and joint actions." (https://circulareconomy.europa.eu/platform/en/...

    Cooperation fostering industrial symbiosis market potential, good practice and policy actions

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Teresa Domenech, Asel Doranova, Matthew Smith

    Source: 

    Technopolis, UCL, International Synergies, Trinomics

    Year: 

    2018

    This study aims to answer three main research tasks:

    - Identify key succes factors as wel as issues hindering the development of industrial symbiosis
    - Assess policy actions that support industrial symbiosis at different levels
    - Assess the feasibility and options of EU-level interventions to contribute to scaling up and promoting IS initiatives across Europe or an EU-level trading platform for secondary raw materials (p. 10)

    Barriers to the Circular Economy: Evidence From the European Union (EU)

    Type of evidence: 

    Author names: 

    Julian Kirchherr, Laura Piscelli, Ruben Bour, Erica Kostense-Smit, Jennifer Muller, Anne Huibrechtse-Truijens, Marko Hekkert

    Source: 

    Utrecht University, Deloitte

    Year: 

    2018

    "The circular economy concept is much discussed in the European Union (EU), but only limited progress has been accomplished so far regarding its implementation. Most scholarly studies blame this on various technological barriers. Our work rebuts these studies. We present the first large-N-study on circular economy barriers in the EU (208 survey respondents, 47 expert interviews). We find that cultural barriers, particularly a lack of consumer interest and awareness as well as a hesitant company culture, are considered the main circular economy barriers by businesses and policy-makers....

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