"COPERT is a software tool used world-wide to calculate air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transport. The development of COPERT is coordinated by the European Environment Agency (EEA), in the framework of the activities of the European Topic Centre for Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre manages the scientific development of the model. COPERT has been developed for official road transport emission inventory preparation in EEA member countries. However, it is applicable to all relevant research, scientific and...
"The Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) method estimates the materials and energy resources required for, and the environmental emissions resulting from, activities in our economy. The EIO-LCA method was theorized and developed by economist Wassily Leontief in the 1970s based on his earlier input-output work from the 1930s for which he received the Nobel Prize in Economics. Researchers at the Green Design Institute of Carnegie Mellon University operationalized Leontief's method in the mid-1990s, once sufficient computing power was widely available to perform the large-...
BIO by Deloitte, Arcadis, Ecologic Institute, Institute for European Environmental Policy, Umweltbundesamt
"The objective of this study is to describe, compare and analyse different types of EPR (extended producer responsibility) systems operating in the EU in order to identify guiding principles for their functioning." (p. 29)
The European Semester is the European Union’s annual cycle of economic policy guidance and oversight. Although monitoring the achievement of Europe 2020 Strategy targets, some of which focus on energy and climate change, is among the key actions of the European Semester, the reviewers so far have concentrated on economic policies in the aftermath of the financial and economic crisis. The circular economy is currently part of the European Commission’s agenda for jobs, growth and investment, which are important themes of the Semester. Against this background, this paper assesses the extent...
In many reports scenarios for the circular economy are designed in order to evaluate the macroeconomic, environmental and societal impact of a transition towards a circular economy. We distinguish an opportunity based scenario approach as for example developed by the Ellen MacArthur foundation and a policy-based approach, as for example modelled for Turkey by Bouzaher et al. (2015). Such a policy-based scenario approach is developed
The circular economy is an instrument to reduce primary resource use and environmental impacts of the economy. However, in current policy documents of the EU (EC 2015) it is also seen as a way to increase growth, employment, and international competitiveness. This may be one of the reasons why one would like to include the progress towards the circular economy in the communication between member states and the EC in the European Semester
This document is about the methodology and selection of the case studies. It is meant as a guideline for the case studies, and together with the other reports in this work package can be a source of information for policy officers, interest groups and researchers evaluating or performing impact assessments of circular economy policies or specific circular economy projects. The methodology was developed to ensure that the case studies